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:••> ,S 4 1 V 



LECTURES 



ON THE 



POLITE ^RTS, 



THE SECOND SERIES. 



Delightful task ! to rear the tender thought,- 
To teach the young idea how to shoot ; 
To pour the enlivening spirit, and to plant 
The generous purpose in the glowing breast. 






BMU LIBRARY 



ORDER 

OF THE 

LECTURES IN VOLUME IL 



PERSPECTIVE. 



I. Tieing an Essay on the natural Principles of this 
Science, arising from the Formation of the Human 
Eye, and the Properties of the Sense of Sight, 

Page 1 to 32 
Plates to this Lecture : 

Plate 1 to 14. 33 to 47 

9. Pkinciples of Perspective Representation 

48 to C2 
Plates to this Lecture : 

Plate 15 to 31. 03 to 76 

3. Principles of Perspective Light and Shadow, 

80 to 103 
Plates to this Lecture : 
■ Plate 32 to 46. 104 to 117 

4. PRiNciPLEsof Aerial Perspective and Keeping, 

118 to 138 
Plates to this Lecture : 

Plate 47 to 51. 139 to 143 

ARCHITECTURE. 

1. Introductory Remarks on this Study, Page 1 to 16 

Plates to this Lecture : 

Plate 1 to 10. 17 to 27 

2. Remarks on the Application of this Art, its Progress, 
Orders, &e. 29 to 54 

Plates to this Lecture : 

Plate 11 to 50. 55 to 87 

Hints on Praciical Building 89 to 90 



LEC^T. I.] .3 

LECTURE 1. 

ON P E R S P E C T I V E. 

Ladies and Gentlemen^ 

Jl have now the honour to open a second series of 
Discourses on the Principles of the Arts of Desigx: 
In this Lecture I propose more immediately to elu- 
cidate the nature, and the general properties, of 
Perspective. The recoUedlion of the candour I 
have experienced on former occasiohs, flsltters tne 
with the hope of your equally cheerful attention to 
the subjects of our present Series ; and I willingly 
persuade myself, that our late recesss has rather en- 
livened, than enervated, yoiir desire for a furthef 
acquaintance with these highly pleasing Studies ; and 
that, as their principles become more familiar, they 
will likewise prove more 'agreeable, and niore satis- 
fadlory. 

~We have heretoibre had dccasion to ad'tilre that 
\vonderful contrivance (the EYE), by which we not 
only inspedl objects around us, but also survey those 
re-mote from us ; to admire — :that astonishing appa- 
ratus which communicates to the mitid those infi- 
nitely various ideas received by the sense of sight; 
a further examination of this organ, will with pro- 
yoL. Ill: Edit. 'i^ B prkty 



6 ox rERSPECTlVE. [lect. r. 

pr'iety form an ^arly subje6l in this discourse. Give 
me leave, therefore, to request your attention, while 
I endeavour to explain some of the principles by 
xvhich this admirable faculty is regulated. 

I am not offering rem.arks as an Anatomist, or, as 
an Optician ; leaving therefore observations which, 
to be properly understood, might require much pre- 
vious knowledge, I shall consider the Eye as com- 
posed of (l) the CORNEA, or external part, which 
by its projedlion from tlie ball of the Eye, enables 
the pupil to er oy a much greater quantity of vision 
than it could n ceive if tlie cornea were level with 
the surrounding surface of the ball. (2) The pupil;. 
this you know, 'Ladies and Gentlemen, is an 
orifice in the center of the iris, throLi2:ti which the 
rays of light pass, into a very clear and transparent 
medium, called the chkystaluxe humor ; 
whereby they are converged towards a focus ; and 
are again transmitted to the vitreous i-iumor, 
tlirough which they pass, and by which they arc 
nicely adjusted to their true focus on the retina. 
(3} The RETINA is a very elaborate collection of 
(apparent) net-work ; being an expansion of the op- 
tic nerve ; by whose motions, the brain, or scat of 
sensation, receives information of all that the Eye 
beholds. Objcdls are pourtraycd on the retina in 
their proper colors, and forms, and with their just 
degrees of force ; so that it becomes an accurate, audi 
vivid; pi6iurc, of whatever is transmitted by the 
rays passing through the pupil. Vivid you may 
suppose it to be, but perhaps its accuracy may seem 
omewhat doubtful, when I proceed lu say, that 

every 



L£CT. I.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 7 

every object: delineated on it appears inverse -, what Is 
really above, seems below ; what is really to the right 
hand, seems to be to ,the left. 

This inversion of obje6ls is very dlstin^lly seen in 
the dissedled eye of a large quadruped, an ox, or ^ 
horse.; and very beautiful, indeed, it is to behold : 
but perhaps the same effe^l is more familiar to my 
auditors, from occasional observations they must 
have made, on the transmission of luminous rays 
through a small hole, or crevice, into a dark cham- 
ber. In this case, external objects, or the etfe^ls of 
external obje6ls, become depicted on the opposite 
wall of the chamber, inversely with respedt to the 
acStual situation of such objects ; thus, if the perfor- 
ation be next a street, the approach of passengers is, 
as it were, announced, by a ray which strikes tl^c 
part opposite to that whereon they are situated : for 
the supposed creviee being far too small to afford 
passage for the rays emitted from every part of an 
objedl, becomes a centre to those rays whose diffe- 
rent directions permit them to converge. Therefore, 
the ray from above, continuing its natural course in 
a straight line, necessarily strikes, in the chamber, 
somew' .re below ; as the ray from below necessarily 
strike, somewhere above: its direClion not being 
alteu J by its passing through the orifice; thouph 
its quantity may be diminished. 

How then do we acquire the faculty of distinguish- 
ing the adtual situations of objedls ? By habit ; by the 
exercise of another sense (I mean Touching), as ano- 
ther medium of obtaining certainty. This habit 
commences much too early in life for us to notice 

B 2 its 



8 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. T. 

Its progress in ourselves ; therefore, to detcdi: it, ve 
must endeavour to trace it in tho'^e not yet accus- 
ton^cd to the enjoytnent of their fliculties. Nevi^- 
born infants make little use of their organs of sight, 
a5 the parts which compose those organs do not pos- 
sess consistence sufficient to condudl the rays of light 
witli certainty. By degrees, this confusion ceases, 
the humors become clear, and the retina receives 
the ra3"s in their due force" and order : at this period, 
inf^ints may be observed to look, and stare, and exert 
their attention, but, in vain, till, after innumerable 
efforts, they discover ihe just situations- of bodies, — 
first of luminous bodies, whose rays issiie in a com- 
pa6l order, and are most impressive on the Eye ; — 
afterwards of objects in general. 

As infants cannot relate the progress of their ac' 
quisitions, we are obliged to infer that progress ; we 
therefore seek information on this' subject, from 
those, who at years of maturity have received the 
invaluable faculty of seeing. With what sensations 
must the minds of such persons be overwhelmed ! 
sensations of unutterable delight r especially, if the 
transition from darkness to light, were momentary, 
and miraculous. In general, however, the Eye is 
unable to bear a transition so sudden ; but requires 
tii'he, wherein to be strengthened by use. Here 
indulge the remark, how happily the Evangelist 
Luke expresses at once the liberality of our Lord's 
manner of giving, and the importance of his gift ; 
" to those who were blind — he presented sight," a 
present wortliy of, and alone in the power of, him, 

VvliOJC 



LECT. I."] ON PERSPECTIVE. 9 

whose creative omnipotence originally formed and 
planted the organs of vision ! 

I beg leave here to offer an Instance of the recep- 
tion of biglit, in which its progress is very distitidliy 
j-elatcd. It is the case of a young man, born blind, 
and couched at fourteen years of age, by Mr. Ches- 
S'E.'L'D^'Si {Philosophical Transactions y No. 402) : It is 
related of him, tliat, 

" When he first saw, he was so far from making 
any judgement about distanccH,. that he thought all 
objects whatever touched his eyes (as he expt'essed 
it) in like manner, as what he felt touched liis slcin ; 
and he thought no objects so agreeable as those 
which were smooth, and regular, though he could 
form no judgment of their shape, or guess what it 
was in any object .that was pleasing to him. He knew 
not the shape of any thing, nor any one thing from 
another, however different in shape, or in magni- 
tude ; but, upon being told what those things Were 
whose forms he knew before from feeling, he would 
carefully observe, that he might know them again ; 
but havin^g too many objects to learn at once, he 
forgot many of them ; and, as hp said, at first he 
learned to know, and again forgot, a thousand things 
in a day. One particular only, though it may ap- 
pear trifling, I will relate. Having often forgot 
which was the cat and which the dog, he was 
ashamed to ask ; but catching the cat, which he 
knew by feeling, he was observed to look at her sted- 
fastly, and then setting her down, said, ^ >So, Pi^ss, 
I shall knoiv you another time.'' — We thought he soon 
knew what pictures represented which were shewed 
^ . - ■ him. 



30 ON PERSPECTIVE* [lECT. I. 

him, but we found afterwards we were mistaken ; 
for about two months after he was couched, he dis- 
covered at once they represented sohd bodies, when 
to that time he considered them only as party-colored 
planes, or surfaces diversified with variety of paint; 
but even then he was no less surprised, expecting the 
pictures would feel like the things they represented; 
and was amazed when he found those parts, which 
by their light and shadow appeared nov<^ round and 
uneven, felt only, flat, like the rest ; and he asked 
which was the /jin^'^ sense, feeling or seeing ? — Being 
shewn his father's picture in a locket at his mother's 
watch, and told what it was, he acknowledged a 
likeness ; but was vastly surprised, asking how it 
could be that a large face should be expressed in so 
little room ? saying, it should have seemed as im- 
possible to him as to put a bushel of any thing into 
a pint." 

At first he could bear but a very small portion of 
light, and every object appeared to him very large 
(like him who saw men walking, as large as trees) ; 
but by degrees he acquired juster perceptions. Ima- 
gine then, what must have been his sensations when 
taken to Epsom he surveyed the distant prospect ! 

Mr. Chesseldem relates other instances of a 
similar nature ; and he' observes of all, that they 
were mightily perplexed how to move their eyes after 
the operation (not having had occasion to move them 
during their blindness) ; and that it was by little and 
little, by degrees, and after a time, they were able 
to direct their eyes to any object they wished to 
inspect. 

Such 



LECT. .1.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 11 

Such is the progress of Sight ; and similar is the 
progress of the Art of Seeing : for there is actually 
no little art in seeing, and in understanding the prin- 
ciples, the powers, and the connexions, of sight. 
How the sense is performed we have already noticed ; 
to explain its principles, is the object of our present 
attention ; and when we have attained to just ideas 
of these, we shall be, I hope, enabled so to imitate 
them, that we may deceive the very organ itself from 
whence they originate : which, in my apprehension, 
is the business and the perfection of Perspective. 

The sentiment just expressed, implies that how 
\'aluable, soever is the sense of sight, like all our 
senses, it is subject to be deceived by proper objects, 
or combinations of objects : thus, what is flat, shall 
appear round, and be estimated to the sight as round ; 
what is near, shall seem remote ; or, what is distant, 
shall be regarded a^ close to us. For example, were 
we not thoroughly certilied by other means, a fly 
passing rapidly at a few inches before our eyes, mia;lit 
seem to be an eagle aloft, or an eagle aloft might 
seem to be a fly near at hand ;- and, in the obscurity 
of night, how often have we actually mistaken a 
bush that was nigh, for a spreading tree at a dis- 
tance ; or, a spreading tree at a distance, for a bush 
just before us. 

In advancing from the Obelisk in St. George's 
Fields, toward Black- Fryars Bridge (other similar 
situations have the same effect), at a proper distance, 
by night, the eye is very easily deceived with respect 
to the true stations of the lamps elevated on- the 
bridge ; not iafrec^uently ghanging thsir declination. 

from 



SMU LiBRARY 



]3 ON' rE£SPECTIVE. [lECT. t* 

from right to left, or from left to right : the ca.use 
of this is obvious ; for, a spectator having no 
other rule whereby to judge than the brilliancy of 
the lamps, ifalampat the further end happens to 
appear brightest, it immediately persuades the eye 
that it is 7iearest'i or, if they appear equally luminous^ 
the eye is biassed to suppose them equally distant ; 
and thus, if the imagination assume such, or such a 
direction, or hearing, of the lamps, to be the true one, 
the Eye coincides vi'itk that assumption, and reports 
jiccordingly. 

Neither is it by night only that the eye is liable to 
such deception, though night is certainly favorable 
to this effedl ; for, that by proper objects the eye 
may easily be deceived, in the day-time, appears 
from a customary question put to strangers on their 
entrance into the church of St. Peter, at Kome. 
Having advanced a few paces, the visitor is asked, of 
what size he supposes the angels to be who attend 
t}:e great altar ? as they appear to be human figures; 
*' the size of life, or perhaps a little larger," is the 
usual reply ; whereas, they are, in reality, much 
more than double that size. 

I remember having observed, in passing a long 
street, where the tops of the houses were nearly uni- 
form, a ladder set by some workmen in a position 
exa6lly corresponding to the apparent gradation of 
the parapets ; whereby it very much confused, if it 
|did not destroy, xht ^erspeuiivity, and distance, of that 
side of the street. 

Bah ON Dji ToTT has given us some remarks on- 
visiting the Pyramids of Egvpt ; which, as the sub- 



LECT. I.] ON PERSfECTIVE. 13 

je6t is curious, and allied to this discourse, I slj,all be 
permitted to introduce. 

*' I cannot take leave of these Monuments," says 
he, *' without mentioning a strange deception in their 
appearance at different distances ; it may serve to 
give some idea of the height of these masses^ wliich 
is not to be conveyed by any comparison, 

" I have already said, that I set out, at midnight, 
from Gise, with the Arabs, wh.o were to conduct mo 
to the Pyramids. We directed our route by keeping 
these prodigious edifices, which seemed like so many 
mountains, continually in view. Being arrived at a 
village, which had hid them a moment from our 
sight, they re^appeared, on leaving it, so large and 
so near, that I thought I could touch them. I was 
even desirous to alight, but the guides assured me 
they were still a full league off. In fa6V, we conti- 
nued to ride on, near three quarters of an hour, at 
the end of which the (great) Pyramid seemed so 
much lessenedy that I alighted from my horse, a 
hundred paces from it, as much surprised to |ind it 
no bigger, as I had been before at its enormous size. 
But I presently found it magnified again on my 
nearer approach ; and these contrarieties in its ap^ 
pearance, made me curious to discover their cause. 
For this purpose, I removed to the distance of six 
hundred paces from the Pyramid, along the plain 
horilzontal to its base ; I then turned about, and this 
point of view giving rhe'its greatest apparent size, I 
remarked, that at this distance,"' its 'perperidicular 
height fdled the angle of the visual rays in such a 
manner, that, on a nearer approach, this same 
\oi^. 111. EdU.7. c angle. 



14 ON PERSPECTIVE^ [lECT. I. 

angle, which I shall compare to the two legs of a 
compassj could only embrace a part of the objedl, 
and that at the distance of a hundred paces, I could 
only discover a third j to which the sensation I ex-: 
perienccd must be attributed. 

" It follows, from this observation, that every 
objedl which exceeds the chord of the two visual 
rays, appears greater, and that which does not fill 
them, appears less, than it really is. Tjiis principle 
might be usefully applied to public buildings, if 
' the best point of sight were to regulate their pro- 
portions." 

Let no sailor laugh at the ignorant land-man, whq 
docs not perceive a ship's real course ; for the eye 
judges of objects by comparison, and calculates, as 
it were, the size and nature of those afar off, by 
those around it. Thus, houses, trees, &c. near us, 
furnish means of determining with respect to others 
of a similar kind at a distance, and we judge of them 
accordingly : but, in the course of a vessel at sea, 
having no adjacent obje6ls by which to calculate, 
the unaccusto.ned eye is embarrassed and deceived : 
I remember to haye paid great attention in this in- 
stance to no purpose. As it is on sea, I presume it 
may be on land ; if in the sandy deserts of Arabia 
there be any spaces without others around them in 
contrary, or at least in different, directions, I very 
much doubt i^ the eye, not habituated to such per- 
ceptions, can distinguish a slope, whether rising or 
descending, fron) level ground. 

That the^ye may be deceived into an opinion con- 
tradictory to the demonstration of the otl^er senses, 

seems 



tECT. I.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 13 

seems, when first mentioned, highly improbable ; 
yet so I have known it. In mechanical instruments 
this is frequent ; but other instances offer : in a ship 
a little way out at sea, whoever looks back will see 
the land diminish, and recede from him ; it will 
appear to him (especially if the gale be steady, and 
the sea be smooth) as if he absolutely retained his 
situation, while the gentle breezes wafted the shore 
out of his sight : but that the fadl is really otherwise 
needs no proof: the fallacy originates with the- be- 
holder himself. 

In travelling the roads of England, at every mile, 
or half milcj either a change of diredlion in the 
road, a variety of prospe<5V, or som.e other novelty, 
occurs, which diverts the tad'ium of the journey. 
On the Continent many of the highways are per- 
fe6lly straight^ and level, for six^ eighty or more,, 
miles together ; they are planted with trees in great 
uniformity on each side, and, by order^ the car- 
riages travel on the pav^^ which is in the middle ; 
thus, to the traveller, cooped up in a chaise, they 
permit no prospect but directly along them. If 
we imagine ourselves just setting forward at one end 
of such a road, our first observations may probably 
commend it as a mof. noble vista ! its regularity al- 
most surprizing, and the sight of the cross at the 
further end, pleasing enough. We move on for 
half art houi;, perhaps, tolerably contented, but on 
examination, the future distance seems as long as 
ever; the same vista, the same regularity, and the same 
cross at the further end, are exadlly as discerftable as 
at first ; surprized by the appearance, we almost 

c 2 believe 



\6 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. I, 

believe we have stood still. Notwithstanding the 
aJIons, of the postillion ; the crick crack of his knot- 
ted vvliip ; the jerks of his massive jack-boots, and 
the rumble of the wheels on the pave, at the end of 
a second half hour (I speak not of English travel- 
ling) we again examine, and again we seem to have 
advanced — nothing ; for still the trees are uniform, 
as before, still the vista is perfect-, still the regu- 
larity is the same, and still the cross at the further 
end is exadlly as discernible as ever. If, when we 
have accomplished this patience-improving labour, 
fickle fortune should turn us into such another, 
good heavens ! a quarter of a mile in it, will either 
bring on sleep, or convince us, in spite of convic- 
tion, that we have made no progress from our very 
commencement. 

And pray w^hat are the causes of these deceptive 
appearances, Mr. Lecturer ? Those, Ladies and 
Gentlem'en, I proceed to consider. 

Whether animals have equal vanity and pride to 
man, in supposing themselves examples of perfec- 
tion, I know not ; but, I confess, it sometimes 
startles me to see some of our species very little ac- 
quainted with their own natural and personal imper- 
fedlions ; rather, while we fretiy acknowledge that 
our sense of sight is indeed noble and invaluable, 
let us remember that it is limited and imperfcdl ; 
though our visual powers surpass " the mole's dim 
curtain," they equal not " the lynx's beam." 

Beside the fatigue which naturally arises fron> 
perpetual contemplation of unvaried uniformity 
(which it will be granted, is very considerable) and 

whicli 



LECT. I.] ON ^PERSPECTIVE. Ij 

which a6l3 as one cause of visual deception, th^rc 
is likewise a diswnce at which the powers of the 
human eye fail with respedl to every objecft, so 
far at least that it ceases to afford pleasure to the in- 
spector ; and this distance is regulated b}'- a ratio, 
correspondent to the magnitude of the object in- 
specTted. If angelic powers may scrutinize throifgli 
various systems ; those of man are confined by hiis 
nature, and by his situation, to a small horizon ; if 
he ascend the highest mountain, if he emulate the 
wing of the eagle, yet his survey bears a diminutive 
proportion to the " ken of angels :" but if he stand 
on level ground, and use no artifice, narrow limits 
bound his view. This is not all; we have before 
explained the natural principles by which sight is 
performed; we nOw further remark, that objects, 
according to their magnitudes, occupy proportionate 
quantities of the rays admitted by the pupil, and c^' 
course proportionate spaces on the picture impressed 
on the retina. In other words, according to the 
angle under which they are seen, they impart ideas 
of their dimensions. 

I need not prove, that every obj.ec^t apparently 
lessens as it recedes ; that as it diminishes^ W€ sur-^ 
vey it with less pleasure ; that wcthe less distingwsli - 
it, and particularize it from among others ; -that it' 
therefore costs more pains to examine ; tlmtif it:bi?-> 
composed of parts not very large, this examination" 
is an anxious labour ; now, if it lesseu perpetually- 
as it recedes, it" is certain that at some determinate • 
distance it will cease to be visible. It may be wort^" 
while, to enq^Uirc at what distan^r^ this t-akes place. " 

The 



18 ON PERSPECTIVE; [lECT. I, 

The smallest angle under which, in general, we 
may view an objecft, is one minute ; this angle gives- 
for" the greatest distance at which a strong eye may 
discerfi that objeft, about 3450 tirnes its diameter : 
for instance, an object one foot in dimensions, bj^^ 
comes invisible at 3450 feet distance ; and a man 
five feet in height, is precluded from our view at 
five times that number of feet, that is to say, at 
5730 yards j or about three miles ; This calculation 
is for common day light. Now, if we would take 
our visual powers at the utmost^ we must scle<St an 
opportunity wheil they are surrounded by obscurity, 
and the objedl inspecfted is surrounded by light, or 
is itself luniinous ; for instance, a light of one inch 
diameter is discernible by night at above ten times 
the distance, at which by day we could discefn a 
foot diameter, consequently, vastly beyond its day- 
light vanishing station, which is little more than 
four hundred yards. -- 

These principles elucidate the first part of the 
science of Perspedlive ; which accounts for the di- 
minution of objedls : The cause of this, we have ob- 
served, is^ the" perpetual decrease of the angle un- 
der which they are seen, correspondent to the in- 
crease pf their distance ; the reason of this decrease,- 
we have remarked, irises from the structure of the 
eye ; and thus we have liberated the science froni^ 
much of that universality with which some have in- 
cumbered it ; by proving, that the primary prin- 
ciples and powers from which it originates, and by 
which it is direcSled (/'. e. those of sight) arc by no 
means to be considered as unlimited, or universal. 

This 



^ECT. I,] ON PERSPECTIVE, IQ 

This will be further apparent, if we refle<^, that 
we are much more sensible gf the variations which 
take place in an obje6l at a small distance from us, 
than of those which may happen in one considerably 
removed.: thus in the first hundred y^rds of dis- 
tance of an obje(5l of one foot in dimensions, we 
distinctly perceive its diminution ; bur, if it was 
2idvanccd from its vanishing station toward us, tvoo- 
hundred yards, or even much more, we should not 
trouble the eye to inspe6l it. I infer, from this re- 
mark, that to apply the rules of Perspedlive to re- 
mote subjects is nugatory, even on theoretic prin- 
ciples, as already stated ; and if we proceed to con- 
sider the acSlual space of vision admitted by the pu- 
pil into the eye, we shall greatly confirm this re- 
mark. It is true, Qmnischnt Providence has con- 
trived that a certain sensation of vision should be 
felt by us, even from objedls whose lateral situations 
are almost parallel to the eye ; but, this is uncer- 
tiin, confused, and indistinct : it serves indeed to 
diredl us, to warn us of danger, and for many other 
ipiportant purposes ; but it is too vague, and em- 
barrassed, to aifordjust ground for principles, much 
Ijess for application of principles to practice. 

I apprehend, that, in direCl vision, when w^e i^t- 
tentiyely inspec'vt what is before us, we cannot be 
said to see on many degrees sideways from the ho- 
rizontal, or strait, line, immediately issuing from, 
or passing up to, the center of the pupil. I deny 
i^ot that we may discern, but I think tjiat discern- 
ment is imperfect ; consequently, that the very ob- 
je6t which centrically opposes our siglit, is tnost 

distinctly 



20 ox PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. I. 

distin(9:ly seen by us ; those on each side of it, are 
somewhat less seen (though perhaps to calculate the 
tlifFerencc might be difficult): those on each side of 
them, still less ; and so on, lessening in accuracy as 
the distance increases, till those remote from the 
eentef are disordered, and indeterminate. 

If this be fact, of what use are perspective repre- 
sentations which extend to many degrees on each 
i'ldc of the center ? is it not rather embarrassing the 
spectator to offer such ? especially, when we well 
knoV^r, that by choosing a proper distance, we re- 
duce the v/hoie to comprehensibility. Who that 
designed to view St. Paul's Church, for instance, or 
any similar object of great magnitude, would advance 
close up to the pillars of the frontispiece ? on the con- 
trary, he would wallc from the object, I say, from the 
church, till he had acquired a station properly dis- 
tant from whence the eye might include the whole, 
within a few degrees of its central line of vision. 

Thus, then,' we haV^ cbnfined the truth of vision 
(consequently the truth and the art of Perspective)' 
first of all, to the centre, and to a certain extent 
around it ; secondly, to that distance from the 
spectator (looking forwards), at which it is worth 
while to apply the rules of vision : i. e. to the space 
more immediately adjacent to him, and to a small 
field of view, which he more accurately inspects. 
The rules of vision are useless, applied by compasses 
to distant mountains, to the parts of buildings vciy 
far off, or where no objects offer a gradation : A 
plain sky, a plain sea, are no subjects for Perspec- 
tive : but, where the eye can most closely inspect, 

in 



LECT. I.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 21 

in forms to which it is moft accuftomed, under cir- 
cumflances to which it is moft familiar, and with 
which it is beft acquainted, there it is moft eafily 
deceived, and moft efFe6lually delighted by the de- 
ception. 

It appears defirable, that the efFe£l we wifh to 
produce, fliould be well underftood by us before we 
proceed to the means of producing it ; and fince in 
other refpe6ts Nature is the original, the model, the 
guide of Art, I fee no reafon why, on the fubjeft oi 
PerfpeiStive, Geometry fliould be permitted prece- 
cedence ; fince her efforts ought to be dire61ed, not 
to the furpafling, but to the imitation of the univerfal 
miftrefs, and regulatrix. 

We now therefore, recall our confideration to the 
fource of Perfpe6tive appearances, — the conftru8ion 
and natural powers of the human eye. We have 
already proved (1 hope diftrn6tly and clearly) that 
the diminution of obje6is is caufed by thefmallnefs of 
the angle under which they are feen, and this is one 
reafon why diftance renders them invifible to us. 
Another caufe equally powerful, though of a dif- 
ferent nature, is, the various quality, and force, of 
the rays of light emitted by, or refle6ted from, ob- 
jects in various fituations, and at different diftances. 

-It is evident, that an ob;e6t near the eye, which, 
confequently, occupies a great proportion of the rays 
received by the pupil, will poffefs a large fpace on 
the retina i and the rays of light reflected from it 
(J/iot as it were) having paffed through alefs diftance 
from the obje£t to the eye, they will enter the eye in 
full force and vigour ; whereas by the removal of 
this object to a ftation further off, not only the quan- 

YOL. 1 1 J. Edit, 7, D tity 



22 ON PERSPECTIVE [lECT. I. 

lity of its rays is diminiflied, but alfo their luftre and 
vivacity"; they become feeble, and dim. This is na- 
tural to its diftant fituation, confidered fimply in 
itfelf, and if we advert to the fuperior advantages 
pofl'efled by other objects remaining near the eye, 
we find, not only that they occupy on the retina 
much oF the fpace heretofore occupied by the for- 
mer, but alfo, by the vivacity and ftrcngth of the 
images they raife, they outpdne, fo to term it, their 
diftant friend ; unlefs, indeed, as in the obfcurity of 
night, the nearer objects are dark, vv'hile the remote 
are ftrongly enlightened. 

I proceed now from natural caufes, to thofe which 
are adventitious ; the principal of thefe is, the rarity, 
or the denfity, of that medium through which objects 
are feen. To prove thefe effefts demonftrably, I 
have only to requefl your recollection, that in the late 
foggy weather you could fee, fcarcely further than 
you could feel ; or, if the eye had ftrength enough 
to difccrn objeds immediately around it, thofe at a 
little diftance, were involved in uncertainty. The 
obje£ts were in their places ; in full proportion ; 
and your vifual powers in vigour ; but the grofs 
medium prevented their ufual perception. This is 
an extreme inllance of what is perpetually occurring 
around us, in a lower degree. 

The air is a very fubtile and tranfparent fluid, and 
in a fmall fpace, or diftance, has no perceivable effeCl 
in difcolouring obje6\s; but in obje£ls very remote, 
we difcover its power. A mountain at hand, is green, 
or brown, the fame mountain feen fcom afar, is blue ; 
from hill to hill may be clear, while the lower grounds 
(as affording mofl vapour) are confufeds the upper 
4 jiirt 



LECT. I.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 2S 

part of the fteeple of a great church, may be diilin6^, 
wliile the body of the fame church, is fcarcely vifiblc. 
This one great caufe,*^ branches out into numberlefs 
variations, producing etTefts correfponding to the fea- 
fons, and the weather ; to climates, and to regions. 
A certain Englifli traveller in Spain tells us, (and the 
cafe is the fame in other warm countries, in very clear 
weather) that the outlines of diftant hills, trees, &c. 
are defined with furprizing accuracy, and fliarpnefs : 
elfewhere, this cffe6t is reverfed, and the outlines of 
diftant objects are mellov/ed, foftened, and rendered 
indeterminate. ' 

Such are the natural principles of Perfpe6live, the 
diminution of objefts, and the weakening of their 
power on the eye, by diftance, : thefe are fo obvious 
as to be undeniable, yet are they fo powerful as 
to controul the whole of Perfpe6live : if belide this 
the obliquity, declination, or bearing of obje£l:s, their 
contours, and their forms be underftood, the fcience 
fhould appear to be complete. This latter article will 
fpeedily engage our attention, for having thus, briefly, 
noticed the leading principles of natural Perfpe6tive, I 
proceed to offer a few hints in explanation of that 
foundation on which we mean to ereft the Art of 
Perspective : we have already difclaimed the uni- 
verfality of the powers, or of the application of this 
Art : I hope, therefore, that by taking up our ideas 
with modefty, and moderation, we fliall attain greater 
accuracy, and certitude, in what we attempt. 
■ The feat of Perfpeftive is the Eye ; one eye if you 
pleafe ; for it is undeniable, that by opening, or fhutting, 
either eye, the pofition, and general appearance of an 

D 2 obje£t 



24 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. I. 

objeft is changed: therefore, we regard only one 
eye in this bufinefs, and that eye we confider as a 
point. A word more on this fubject : — At a certain 
diftance, the rays from each eye coincide, and unite, 
fo as to anfwer the purpofe of one eye, by tranfmit- 
ing to the mind one image only of the obje6l infpe61ed; 
this remark will hereafter appear of importance ; fince, 
whoever places himfelf to view a picture nearer than 
this diftance, contravenes the defign of the Artift, 
whofe calculation is intimately connected with this 
circumflance. 

As it would be perplexing to treat on points, or 
fmall objects, when extenfive, and larger objects, are 
more diftinct, I fubmit the following principles to 
confideration. 

A plane is a furfaccj a mere ideal extended fuper- 
ficies, having no thicknefs : this fheet of card paper, 
is therefore almoft a plane, but not quite ; as having 
fome fubftance. This drawing-board is almoft a plane, 
but, for the fame reafon not altogether; however, it 
may ferve to elucidate the nature of planes ; except- 
ing, that as planes are mere geometrical ideas, they 
may be fuppofed in any dirc£lion whatever; or any 
number of them may crofs each other at all points 
with facility; a facility to which mahogany has no 
pretenfions. Permit me however to call it a plane. 
Now for its application : 

The dire6t central beam of the eye, whether we 
confider it as a ray of light, iffuing from the eye, or 
entering into the eye, is, in cither cafe, (naturally) 
diametrically oppofed to the horizon ; in other words, 
the horizon is the height of the eye ; I fpeak of a 

fair 



LECT. 1.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 25 

fair equable horizon. The courfe of rays fhot from 
the eye, to the various parts of this horizon, is a level, 
a plane of rays. A fan fpread open may illuftrate this 
idea ; the handle may denote the eye of a fpe61ator ; 
the circumference of the edge of the mount may re- 
prefent the horizon, and the fticks are a level or plane 
of rays iffuing from the eye to the circumference : or 
they may be regarded as rays iifuing from the horizon, 
and terminating in the pin or pivot, the center of the 
handle : this ftatement is perhaps moft conformable 
to Nature ; but for purpofes of Art, either fuppofition 
may be adopted by way of explanation. 

As I uiih to render this part of our fubje^" clear 
and familiar, I fliail remind you of what we all have 
obfervcd, occalionally, I might fay conftantly. In en- 
tering a houfe, at the level of the ftreet, we fuppofe 
right before us is a Might of flairs : obferve thefe ftairs ; 
of fome, i. e. of the lower ones, we fee the whole 
tread of the ftair; of others, higher up in the flight, 
we fee little or nothing of the tread ; of others, higher 
flill, we fee no part of the tread, but, if the front of 
the ftair was away, we Ibould fee under the tread of 
the ftair. Now each of thefe ftairs may be taken to 
reprefent a plane ; but it is evident, that only one of 
them can be the true horizontal plane. If we proceed 
up this ftair-cafe, we obferve other planes prefenting 
themfelves to our view, and each of them in our pro- 
grefs, anfweriiig to the horizontal plane : our eye has 
traced this — up the ftairs — to the floor of the landing 
place — to other ftairs, ftill higher — and fo on. In this 
manner would the horizontal line correfpond to the 
height of our eye, were we to afcend to the very top 

of 



26 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. I. 

of St. Paul's Church ; where, by means of this corref- 
pondence, we fliould enjoy k more extenfive profpeci. 
The fame effeft, inverted, would follow our defcent : 
we {hould frrft lofe figlit of what was lately our hori- 
zontal plane, and all things lying on it, would difap- 
pcar; the fame effeci would attend that which in fuc- 
cefljon became our horizontal plane, till we came to 
the level of the ground itfelf ; and the ground itfelf 
would alfo yield to this principle, if we had occafion 
to defcend ftill lower, as into a kitchen, into a well, 
into a deep pit, or into a coal mine. 

Again, the ground whereon a ipcctator (lands, is 
a natural plane: now if wc fuppofe afpe61ator to re- 
main fixed, while all the fpace from before him to 
the horizon, is gently raifed up vertically, when it has 
rifen to the level of his eye, he will not be able any 
longer to difcover obje6ls fituated upon it ; they arc 
precluded from his fight, and, together with the ground 
plane itfelf, they form a mere line ; or they vanifli : it 
follows, that the line formed by the horizon, is the 
vanilTiing line to the ground plane. Or, change the 
fuppofition, and imagine the ground to maintain its 
{lability, while a fpe6tator defcends ; as he goes lower, 
and lower, the diftance between the horizon and the 
ground diminifhes, till at length thefe tw^o planes ap- 
pear to him to unite. But there is no need for ima- 
gining fuch high afcents, or fuch deep dcfcents ; an 
inilance at hand may aflill in demonfirating this priii- 
ciple. 

On this drawing board, we fee noiv from end to 
end J but as I elevate it (yet keeping it horizontal), 
when it is equal in height to the eye, we dilcern not 

any 



LECT. I.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 27 

any part of it, but its edge. Now, obferve, that if 
the ground plane, were it produced, would vanifli into 
the horizontal line, all leflcr planes lying, being, and 
lituate, (as the lawyers fay) on this ground plane, or 
rather forming parts of this ground plane, would vanifli 
into the fame line. But, although not thus produced, 
yet the ground plane (and confjquently all planes upon 
it) have a perpetual tendency, and inclination, toward 
the faid horizontal line, till at length they unite with it, 
and in appearance become a part of it. 

If a plane lying on the ground follow the dire£lion 
of that ground, /, e. if it lie ftraight before the fpec- 
tator, the point to which the fides of a portion of it 
cut direct will tend, is, that which is ftruck by the 
center beam, or ray, of the fpe£lator's eye ; it is, I fay, 
the center of the horizontal line. But if this portion 
of a plane lying on the ground, be fituate in an ob- 
lique dire6tion with refpeft to the fpe61:ator, then that 
point on the horizontal line to which it apparently 
tends [i. e. its vanifliing point) will be removed on 
that line, from the center, to one fide of it, according 
to its obliquity, e. gr. If it is ten degrees oblique 
from the eye, its point of tendency will be ten degrees 
diftant from the center, and fo on. 

As an example, I have, you fee, laid this portion 
of a plane of card paper, obliquely on this plane of 
mahogany, (v/hich reprefents the ground plane imme- 
diately before the fpe£tator) but as the dire6lions of the 
fides of thefe two portions or planes do not agree, it 
is certain the lines they form, if prolonged, would 
never arrive at the fame point in the horizon ; but, ac- 
cording to the variation of tlie card paper, from the 

true 



28 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. I. 

true point of the drawing-board, fo will its vanifliing 
point be removed on the horizontal line. But, pleafe 
to obferve, that while it remains on the drawing- 
board, it may wifh in vain for any other line on which 
to vanilh ; the original plane has the abfolute power of 
directing it in this refpect. 

Thus, have we iiluftrated the nature of planes, of 
the horizontal line, and of its center, of the ground 
plane, and of vanifliing lines and points. What has 
been faid, has related only to planes, in a horizontal 
pofition, — What muft we do with vertical planes ? 
The fame principles anfvver this queftion. Inttead of 
fuppofing that, from the center beam, or ray, of a 
fpectator's eye, a line is extended laterally, which, in 
confequence, forms the horizon ; we muft fuppofe a 
line to be extended perpendicularly y above, and be- 
low, the center ; then is its office with refpect to ver- 
tical planes, the fame as that of the horizontal line 
with refpect to horizontal planes. I move this draw- 
ing-board (holding it vertically) along the edge of the 
table ; when it arrives at the direct beam of the eye, 
it becomes in unity with the faid centrical vertical line ; 
confequently it appears a mere plane, or, it vanifhcs. 
And this portion of a card-paper plane, is, you fee, 
directed by that to which it is afBxcd, fo that although 
it will not vanifli in the fame point as the drawing-board 
(which now reprefents a portion of a vertical plane at 
the fame elevation as the fpectator's eye), yet it will 
vanifti on the fame line, in a point correfpondent to 
its obliquity in refpect to its original plane. 

As to vertical planes parallel to the fpectator, I 

fcarcely think them objects of explanation, after what 

• has 



LECT. I.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 29 

has been faid ; the only perfpe£livity of which they 
are capable, being a diminution as they recede from 
the fpeftator: but if we fuppofe any objects pour- 
trayed upon them, thcfe will preferve their regular 
ftations; not only the perpendicular lines continue 
perpendicular, but the horizontal lines continue 
horizontal ; and thus, a fquare, which in either of the 
planes we have treated of would become oblong, (I 
mean (horter on two fides than on the other two) j or 
a circle, which would become elliptical, in a parallel 
vertical plane' retain their forms ; — a fquare though di- 
miniflied continues to be a fquare, and a circle conti- 
nues to be a circle. 

Neither fhall we at prefent, regard planes oblique 
to the horizontal, or to the vertical line, fince fuch 
are alfo of a conftruction fimilar to thofe already de- 
fcribed ; and (ince in our future progrefs they may be 
attended to with advantage. Enough has been faid 
for the prefent ; — lam not addrefllng an auditory in 
academical trencher-caps, bonnets, and bands, but (a 
confiderable part of it at leaf!) in gauze caps, bonnets, 
and ribbons ; v/ho, I conceive, engage in thefe ftudies 
not intenfely, though heartily ; not as the bufinefs 
of life, but as a moft agreeable relaxation, uniting 
pleafure with improvement ; and, therefore, refer 
the fubjects already treated to candid conlideration. 
For fimilar reafons I have avoided all mathematical 
terms and exprefiions, that I poflibly could, and have 
endeavoured to familiarize the whole : if I have fuc- 
ceeded according to my defire, we have fuffered little 
lofs in the abfence of abftrufe terms, and hard names j 
and have had little reafon to regret the pompous into- 

yoL. III. Hdit, 7, E nations 



so ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. 1. 

nations of axiom, theorem, corollary, or^ 
Q. E. D. 

In looking down the regular and ftrait ftreets as we 
pafs along this great city, we may obferve, and ap- 
propriate to what has been our fubje6t, the planes 
around us: the pavement is undeniably the ground 
plane ; in that part of another ftreet which crofifes the 
end of the ftreet down which we look, is the center 
of the horizontal line : the fronts of the houfes on each 
fide of the ftreet, form vertical planes; and as the 
ground plane, by its continual apparent rifing, feems 
to feek a union with the horizontal line, fo thefe ver- 
tical planes, by appearing to approach clofer and 
clofer, as their diftance from the eye increafes, appear 
perpetually to feek a union with the vertical line, and 
efpecially with the center, or dirc£l beam of vifion 
which regulates the whole. 

I conceive the whole fcience, and fecret, of Per- 
fpe^live is now opened ; whatever variations may 
happen, or indeed can be contrived, may be reduced 
ultimately to thefe principles : I fliall therefore detain 
you but little longer, on this part of the fubje6f , while 
I notice what, perhaps, may to fome perfon or other, 
and at fome time or other, prove of fervice, if not of 
importance. 

From the nature of the vifual rays, I infer, that the 
misfortune of a caft in the eye, arifes from the obli- 
quity, and declination, of the center beam of one 
eye caufed by the unequal ftrength of the eyes, whereby- 
one fhoots, as it were, its beams well, the other with 
infirmity ; now as this is regulated very much by the 
+ • iituation 



LECT. I.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 31 

fituatlon of the nofe, a gradual addition of fome thia 
fubftance to that lide of the nofe next to the affeded 
eye, would, I am perfuaded, in time, direft the center 
beam of that eye, from its falfe, to its true, direction. 
To fupport what has been faid on the nature of 
the angle under which objefts are viewed, I appeal 
to all magnifying glaffes, which aft by extending the 
angle, and which may be confidered as an eye in ad- 
vance ; and as counterafting that diminution of objefts 
which is the bafis of perfpeftive. 

I fhall remiirk further, that if the bodily powers of 
man in fome inftances are exceeded by thofe of crea- 
tures of inferior rank in the creation, yet his mental 
abilities make him ample amends : of this, the fubje£t 
of fight is a direft proof: fmce, however confined by 
nature, art has extended its powers immenfely " be- 
yond this vifible diurnal fphere." Not only are the 
fplendid luminaries from whence we derive light and 
heat, infpefted by us, but other fyftems are explored, 
and other funs exarriined. Perfpective has its ufes too 
in the bufmefs, fuch at leaft was the opinion of that 
great philofopher Huygens, who, wifhing to cal- 
culate the dimenfions of a remote ftar, could only 
attain his object by reverjing his telefcope, and thereby 
reducing the fun to fimilar dimenfions, as if placed at 
afmiilar diftance : veryjuftly, therefore may it be faid, 
that this fcience is not confined to this terreftrial ball ; 
its principles extend into ether itfelf, and its laws re- 
gulate the fplendors of the celeftial luminaries. 

But with regard to ourfelves. La dies and Gentle- 
men, we are attending to perfpeftive as to the prin- 

E 2 ciples 



32 OK PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. I^ 

ciples of one of our faculties; and indeed, it feems to 
me fo intimately connected with our natural faculties, 
and capacities, (thofe highly proper obje61:s of our 
ftudy) that I am forry, when I meet with any perfon, 
who, though poUeffing the gift of fight, is ignorant 
of the principles of a fcience fo very important, and 
invaluable. 



OBSERVATIONS. 



LECT. I.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 33 

OBSERVATIONS, 

Relating to the Examples given in the Plates, and 
lohich belong to the foregoing Difcourfe. 

ALTHOUGH geometry muft not be permitted 
precedence of fome of the general principles of 
perfpe6live, yet is an acquaintance with certain of 
its problems very ufcful to the ftudent ; principally for 
the following reafons (l) becaufe, being formed by 
thecompalTes and ruler, they are rnathematicaliy exa6l; 
and therefore (2) They difcover at a glance the dif- 
ference between the fame figure in geometrical pro- 
portion, and when feen in perfpeQive : as for inftance, 
a fquare, or a circle, is determinately different in its 
form and appearance. We fhall therefore attend 
fomewhat to the limple elementary figures of this 
fcience, and to the readieft methods of forming them, 
previous to rendering them in perfpe£live. 

Thefe examples are alfo of ufe in reference to the 
ftudy of archite£ture ; fince the forms of the parts of 
buildings, and their ornaments, are compofed of 
figures, which the principles of geometry treat with 
the greateft readinefs and correftnefs. In fa6t, neither 
architefture, nor fculpture, can exift unaided by geo- 
metry ; and all imitations of thofe arts, by painting, 
&:c. muft be regulated by the fame principles. 



PLATE 



34 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. I, 

PLATE I. 

No. I. Two lines not parallel, produced till they 
meet, will form an angle : thus A and B are united at 
C, and form the angle ACB. N. B. An angle being 
generally denoted by three letters, the middle one 
lliould always reprefent the angular point. 

An angle is divided by fetting one foot of the com- 
pafTes on the angular point C, and ftriking the arch 
DE: then from D and E, fweeping EF, and DF; 
whofe interfedion divides the original angle, by a line 
drawn to C. 

No. II. When a line (lands eretl on another line, 
it forms a right angle, as BAD: when it exceeds a 
right angle it becomes obtiifey as B A C : when lefs 
than a right angle, it is termed acuie, as B A E. 

No. III. To divide a right line into two equal parts; 
fet one foot of the compaflcs on the point A, and 
fweep an arch above and below the line ; then fweep 
a fimilar arch from the point B: their interfetlions 
united by a line, will mark the exa6t divifion, as C. 

No. IV, To raife a perpendicular from a given line: 
from any point as a center, as C, mark two equal dif- 
tances A and B : from thence fweep the arches A I), 
BD, a line uniting their interfeclion D with the ori- 
ginal point C, will be the perpendicular required. 

No. V. To let fall a perpendicular from A to a line 
beneath it: fet one foot oi the compaffes in A, and 
ftrike BC: bifeft B and C by the fweep BD, C D, 
(as before in No. I.), the interfeclion will be perpen- 
dicular to A. 

No. VI. To raife a perpendicular at the end of a 
line as A. B : fet one foot of the compafles in B, place 
the other toot any where towards C, then from C as 
a center, fweep A B D : through A and C, draw a 
line till it interfects the circle at D, which will be per- 
pendicular to B. 

P^ATE 



LECT J.] ON PERSPECTIVE,. $5 

PLATE II. 

No. I. Between two points, as A and B, to find two 
ether points fituated diredly between them, fo that a 
line may be drawn from A to B with a fliort ruler. 
From the points A and B, make the interfedions C 
and D, then from the points C and D, make the in- 
terfections G and H, thefe two points G and H will 
be in the continued line A B. 

No. II. To draw a right line which fhall touch a 
circle at a given point. Let A, B, C, be the circle in 
whofe circumference the given point is A; from the 
center D, rule through the point A, a line of fufficient 
length, as E, to which at A, ere£l a perpendicular as 
F G, which prolonged through A to G, is the line 
required. 

No. III. From a given point to draw a right line, 
which fliall jull touch a given circle. Let A be the 
point given, from which a tangent (juft-touching line) 
is to be drawn to the circle DEF: from the center 
G, draw G A, divide this line into two equal parts at 
H ; from H as a circle, defcribe the femicircle G D A; 
then a line drawn from A through D, will be the tan- 
gent required. 

No. IV. To divide a line into any number of equal 
parts. From one end as A, draw at pleafure A D : 
from the other end B, draw a line parallel to AD, as 
B C ; from A towards D, and from B towards C, fet 
off a number of fpaces, one lefs than the number de- 
lired: then unite the firft in AD, with the laft in BC, 
and fo on in progreffion : their interfe6lions with the 
original line will divide it into the number of parts re- 
quired. PLATE 



ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. I. 



PLATE III. 

No. T. A plane furface, terminated by three right lines, 
is a triangle : if the tlu'ee fides are equal, it is an equilateral 
triangle. To form this figure, from A ftrike A C, the length 
of A B ; from B, fhrike B C the fame length : their inter- 
fe6tion gives the third point C. 

No. II, A plane terminated by four equal fides, at equal 
angles, is a fquare. To form a fquare : ereft A C, which 
terminate at the fame length as A B ; rule C D parallel to 
A B : and B D, parallel to A C. 

No, III. To conftru.61 a pentagon, firft defcribe the circle 
A B C, which bife6l, by ruling the diameter A C ; on the 
center D ered the perpendicular D B ; divide the femidia- 
mcter D C in E, which rule to B, and carry the interval 
E B to F : the diftance B P\ is one fifth part of the circle 
A B C. Any fide of this pentagon bifefted, gives the pro- 
portion for a decagon, as a. 

No. IV. To conftruft a hexagon, or figure of fix fides : 
firft defcribe the circle ABE DC F, which bifecl by ruling 
the di.nneter F E : from tlie points F and E, with the fame 
opening of the compaflcs as was ufed in fl;riking the circle, 
fi;rike tlic intervals A C and B D, which will give the points 
for conftrufting the figure. Any fide of a hexagon bifected, 
gives the propoi-tions of a dodecagon, as a. 

No. V. To conflrufil a heptagon, or figure of feven fides: 
firfi: defcribe the circle A B, which bifeci in its diameter, as 
A B : with the interval of its diameter form the equilateral 
triangle ABC; then from one of its angles as B, rule the 
right line B7 of fufficient length ; upon which fet off the 
number of fides (as T) of which the figure dcfired is to con- 
fift : rule 7 A, then take two of thefe parts, as 7 ,5, and 
from the point 5 carry 5 D parallel to 7 A, ftriking the dia- 
meter of the circle in C D ; then from C, the higher angle 
of the triangle A B C, rule C D, which fl;riking the circle in 
E, will give A E for one feventh part of its circumference : 
carry this interval round the circle to complete the figure. 

N. B. This method is general, for a polygon of anv num- 
ber of fides : but, it is to be obferv-ed, that many polygons, 
which are near enough for practice, will not ftand the teft 
of uiuthem ticul cxacluefs. 

PLATE 



LECT ij ON perspective; 2rt' 

PLATE IV. 

No. I. To defcribe a circle within a triangle : Bifcft the 
angle BAG and CAB, by the method fliewn in Plate I. 
No. I. The interfeftion of thefc lines in the middle of the 
triangle, gives the center, as D ; ffom which a circle may 
be drawn, touching the triangle on its internal fides. By 
opening the compafles from D to A,B, or C, we may in- 
icribe a circle around the triangle, touching its extreme 
angles, AB C, 

No. II. To defcribe a fquare within a fquare. Of the 
fquare A, B, C, D, unite the oppofite angles, AC and 
BD; bifed thefe, as AD in E; draw EF and HGpa- 
»allel to A C : EH, and F G parallel to B D, to complete 
the figure. 

It is evident, that to infcribe a circle within the fquare 
ABCD, the opening of the compafl!es from the central 
interfefilion O to E, gives the diameter ; as the opening 
from O to A, to B, C, or D, gives the diameter of a circle 
around the original fquare. 

No. III. To infcribe a circle through any three given 
points, as ABC : unite them by lines drawn to each, bifeft 
the lines thus drawn, by perpendiculars, whofe interfeclion 
denotes the center D, from which a circle may be drawn 
through ABC. 

No. IV. To find the center of a circle : rule at pleafure 
a line touching at each end the circumference, as A B ; on 
AB ere6l a perpendicular as C, then bifeft Ip much of C as 
is contained in the circle, which will give thl^center D. 

No. V. The readieft way to form an oval, i^ by ftriking 
two fmall circles, (one at each end of a right ffne, as ab,) 
their interfeftions denote the centers from whence to firike 
the oppofite fides to complete the figure : thus, from Cy 
with the interval cA, ftrike AB, and from d ftrike DC. 



VOL. III. Edit. 7. F FLATE. 



SB ON PERSPECTIVE, [lECT. I, 

PLATE V. 

No. I. Another method of forming a heptagon, or figure 
of feven (idt's. Having defcribed the circle ABC ; with the 
interval KB, the femidiameter of the circle, l^rike a femi- 
circie, as from A to C, unite E and B, wiiich bife6ts the line 
AC at D, the interval AD or DC, will be nearly one 
fcventh part of the circumference : near enough for praftice. 

No. II. To dofcribe an eimcagon, or hgui-c of nine fides, 
Befidc the general method which fcrves for polygons of any 
jiunvfier of iides already given, we fliall add another way of 
forming a nine-fided figure. Firft defcribe the circle ABC, 
t)>en with the fame opening of the compailes, defcribe the 
arc AC as from B, unite AC, aUb BD ; from C defcribe 
an arc, as EF, and from E, defcribe an arc to cut it at F ; 
rule DF to thivS interlection, cutting the circle in a : the in- 
terval aC, carried round the circle, completes the figure. 

No. III. To defcribe an endecagon, or figure of eleven 
fides. Having ftruck the circle, draw the femidiamet(?r as 
AB, which bifect at C ; from B, with the interval BC, de- 
fcribe the arc Bl); and from C, defcribe CD, ftriking 
the circle in E ; from E, with the interval ED, draw thtr 
f4nall feuiicircle a ; unite C a, which carry round the circle. 

No. IV. To defcribe a fpiral line, Tliere are many kinds 
of i'pirals; feme of which are of very complex operation; 
but this kind of fpiral is formed by ruling a line acrofs 
the intended centers, as Ao : from <? firike the upper femi- 
circle, as Ah ; then remove the compares to A, and ftrike 
the lower feniicircle, as ^f/; return now the compalles to- 
ff, and ftrike the upper femicircle d to e : continue thispro- 
cefs as often a> is retjuifitc. If a certain nnmber of lines be 
required in a given fpace, mark their divifions on the croft 
line (III r. 

A fcale for lengthening and fliortening lines. Suppofing 
the plane fuperficies A Bb'E, had a number of lines infcribed 
upon it, it is evidtent, that on the fpace from A to B, the! in- 
t<^rval5 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, are the Ihortel^: w.hich can poifiblv 
he formed, &c. By riding tiie angular line BC,thefe fame 
intervals are kugtliened on tlie line BC, in proportion to 
the angle adapted. In ruling Bl), tliev are ItiU mote en- 
larged ; and in ruling BE, thi-y are nioft ol" all enlargeil ; fo 
t'lat, the interval E 1, is far longer than A 1, and nnght be 
'transferred to another fcale, or to a fubjet't for practice, as. 
wanted. By the fame manner ///irr/tV//, if BE was the 
length of the original line, a line fet at the angle EBA, 
would reieive the intervals; and would ihortr-u them pro- 
portionately. 

3 PLATE 



LECt. I.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 39 

PLATE VI. 

To drdw a line or lines, to a point given, xchich point is 
fituatcd beyond the limits of the paper. 

As it fometimes happens, that a point to wtiich it is 
required to draw Unes, may be at fome confiderable diftance 
from the fubje6t with which tliofe Hnes are conne6ted, a 
ready wav to draw hnes to inch a dillant point is very ufcful. 

No. I. Let AB and CI), be Hnes ah-eady drawn to P, 
which is a fixed point, it is required to draw from E, wliich 
hes between A and C, a hue whicli alfo (liall tend to P, Draw 
AC, at i^leafure, through the point E, then at fome diftance, 
draw B 13, parallel to AC: rule the diagonal AD; draw 
EF, parallel to CD, and Y Q parallel to A B; unite E and 
G bv a line, which if continued, would ftrike the point P. 

If the point from which it is required to draw the line, 
does not lie between two lines, but beyond ihniii, as a, rule 
a A, and at a proper diitance, rule li B ; draw the dia- 
gonal AD</, then rule ad, parallel to CD, till it ftrike the 
diagonal in d', from rf rule backwards db, parallel to AB ; 
then vvill 6 be a point, through which a hue drawn from a, 
will tend to P. L 

By turning the paper, this pdint a, iuftead of h^hr^ abope 
the hues CD, ikc. becomes ^i'/c;:tJ them: the procefs is the 
lame. - -ii •• '•'^ ^^ ",}'-■*■ 

No. II, Another method of produtifig^ 4he farag eflfei^. 
Let A Bj and CD, be lines, given, -teiiding to P. '-^in's'tfe- 
quired to draw through the point K, fituated betwe'elf thofe 
hnes, a line which alio lliail tend-to P: ruje at pleaiure, 
two lines through K, as. AG and FC: ft-om A, rule tiiroiaoh 
C, a line lufficientl}- long,; and from.F, tbrough G, rule mi- 
other line, meeting the former in a.,- f);om a, dr.wwali, 
and a B , at plcafure ; draw the diagp^Wls H D and B I,, whole 
interlecricn gives K, for a point throng !x which a line dijawn 
from E will tend to P.. -^ ,,, . ■ •- Ij ortrr 

No. III. When the point, as e, is beyo?id the lines, gi*r^. 
Draw ea, and ef, at pleafure, cutting, the originjil if;nes in 
c, a,f ?.x\6. ft \ draw the diagonals interPjcling at o;,4ra/w 
alfo at pleafure hk, fufficiently long ; at d where it cuta ct, 
rule dh through o ; alfo rule bi, through o ; from A dra^v 
through i, a. line fufficiently long ; and. from b through d, 
another line to interfecl it; this interfe6lion gives yi', for a 
point, through which a line drawn from e, will, if contimit-a, 
pafs on to P. — This figure alfo may be reverfed, by turning 
ihp paper ; but tlj€ principles are the faHie. 

F 2 PLATE 



40 ON PERSPECTIVE, [lECT, 1. 



PLATE VII. 

To meafure the Dijlance of inaccessible places. 

As occafionally either curiofity or utility excites in us a 
willi to knorv the diftances of places, when we cannot mea- 
fure directlv to them — befides the amuienient whieh refults 
from this, as a piece of geometrv, we prefent in this plate 
two fubje6ls for the pinpofe of afcertaining the diftance of 
«L place which is inaccelfible. 

• Fig. 1. Suppofe the fpeftator ftationed at A, wifhed to 
know the diftance of the objecl B. At fome little diftance 
on one fide i\, as C, ere6t a fmall ftick; this being fecured, 
retreat to D, obferv'ing that C covers the objefl B, whereby 
it appears that both are in one right line ; here alfo ereft 
another flick, then on the other fide of A, at the fame dif- 
tance from A, as D is, and A alfo covering D, erect another 
ftick E; then advancing: to F, at the fame diftance from A 
•as C is, place another ftick, and continue advancing to fuch 
ca point (G,) that from thence A appears to cover B, and F 
appears to cover E: this point, G, is the fame diftance 
-from A, as A is from B. 

Fig. 2. But if it ftiould happen that this procefs requires 
more room than can conveniently be engaged, this figure 
ihews the mode of afcertaining the diftance in a place of 
fmaller dimenlions. 

The fpe6lator being ftationed at <r, defires to know his 
diftance from h. On one fide 6f a, as c, fix a ftick ; then 
advancing beyond s, toward d, fix on a fpot which is fome 
convenient number of times the lengtli of ^f (as three times) 
where alfo erect a ftick : then ?vy. on fome convenient part 
of the line between db, as c, and divide its diftance from a 
into throe parts (or fo many as the line ad is divided into.) 
Set off one of thefe parts at/", taking care that a covers c\ 
and advancing along the liise cf, toward,:?", fix on that point 
from wlience a covcris b, and /"rovers <•, (as ^.•) then mea- 
fiu'ing from g to a, it will be found (»ne-third part of the 
diftance from a to b : fo that if from ff to a be 100 yards, 
from « to ^ is 'M)0 yards. 

N. B. If the line a d was divided into four, or five parts, 
.&c. then the line ag would be one fourth, or fiftli, »kc. 
of the diftance ab. 

PLATE 



XSCT. I.] ON PERSPECTIVE 41 



PLATE yill. 

TO ENLARGE, OR TO DIMINISH, AN OBJECT, 

By Means of Squares. 

Divide the outer frame of the original, by any num- 
ber of fquares, at pleafure ; always taking care that 
they be exaft : then, into precifely the fame number 
of fquares, divide the fpace allotted to the copy ; the 
interfe6lions of the lines will give fo many points of 
certainty, that the forms of the objects reprefented 
may be procured with great correftnefs. 

N. B. For greater accuracy it is befl to number, 
and mark, the fquares, that one may not be miflaken 
for another. By this mod*^, a large pidure may be re- 
duced to the fize of a draw ing : or a drawing may be 
transferred to a picture of any fize whatever. 



P L A T V. 



^2 OK PERSPECTIVE. £lECT. I. 

PLATE IX. 

The ftruflure of tiie eye, is in {aB, the foiircc and origin of 
Perfpe6tive, and all appearances of objeqts arc regulated by it, 
and are conformed to its principles. We 'nave therefore thought 
it advifeable to explain in fome degree, ihe nature and conflruc- 
tion of the human eye. 

No. I. This figure fe^i'efents the eye ks a globe inclofed' fti 
its membranes, but having an aperture through which the rays 
of light paf. into it: the chief body of this globe is filled wih a 
kind of gelid humour, whofe convergent powers are not very 
flrong : but nearer to the orifice whereat the llglit enters, fs a 
lind of lens, whofe convergent powers are '<iortfiderable, '-and 
this is of principal ufe in producing correct vifion. 

This figiire is meant to fliew that tho rays of light:, which by 
palling through thefe humourr, produce virtiop, are diiected to 
oppolitc parts of the eye from thofe at which they enter, fo that 
A above is depidted on the reiiua (which lines the inn:>r cavity of 
the eye, and is the immediate feat of vifion) in a below ; iB at b, 
C at c- ; D at J, and E below, at e above ; only the center C re- 
taining its original diredion ; it follows, that objects are depicted 
on the reima iuverfely. 

No. II. This figure fliews alfo that obje6ts are depicted in- 
verfely ; at the fame time it hints at the nature of that converg- 
ing power which the humours of the eye pofiefs, whereby the 
rays of light are directed prccifely to reach the retina, and nei- 
ther to exceed the di (lance of that membrane, nor to fall fliort of 
it. The proportion of thcfe powers we fliatt fee in another plate. 

No. 111. Shews the nature, and caufes, of the apparent di- 
minution of objects. We obferve, that A A occupies on the 
circle of the retina, a much greater portion (as a a on the line 
a a) Ihan BB does, which only occupies the fpace Ij b, cutting oti" 
a fpace on the fmaller line a a, proportionate to fo much of the 
line A A, as is cut olf by the line B B. On the fame principle 
C C is narrower (as c c,) than B B ; and as C C occu|ues but a 
iinall portion of the line A A, fo it occupies but a fmall portion 
ot the circle of the eye, or of the line an. This is one reafon 
wiiy dirtant objedts appear fainter than thofe which are at hand; 
but other reafons are given in the letture. 

No. IV. Is an ijilt.ince of ocular deception ; but in fome 
rcf[)e6ts rather artificial, than natural; it reprefonts a vellel con- 
taining a piece of money, fo i)iaced at the bottom of it, that the 
eye cannot perceive it, bec.iufe its beams (hoot over it: to 
render it vifible to the eye |)referving its llation, the vellel is 
filled with water, the reira(?lion of the ravs in the water enables 
the eye to difcover it. Many dect ptions of the eye are prac- 
tiled by glades, &c. in op(irs ; but tiiey do not j)ro})erly belong 
to the nature of peifpeCtive, th'^ugh they How fiom liniiiar prin- 
ciples. 

PLATiy 



LECT. I,]' ON PERSPECTIVB, ^i 



PLATE X. 

This example exhibits the nature of a cone of .rays, 
as IfTuing from an obje6l to the eye of a fpeftator : if 
a tranfparent medium or glafs were fuppofed to be 
fituated between his eye and the object ; it is evident 
that the point where any ray interfe6ted that medium 
or glafs, would reprefent tC» the eye a correfpondent 
point of the original obje6l : and if the whole number 
of rays were thus defcribed on the glafs, they would 
form a pi61:ure of the object; correfponding exa6lly to 
its dimenfions, and figure, and having the fame efFe£t 
to the view of the fpe8ator. 

Now this is the' very effence of PERSPECTiVE; to 
compofe a picture, drawing, or reprefentation, which, 
though delineated on canvafs, paper, or wood, &;c. 
yet, fhould convey tp the beholder, as clear, accurate, 
and corre6^, ideas of the fubje61;s defigned, as if they 
were feen through a glafs, or other tranfparent me- 
dium. To a(i;complifli this, we muft not trull to tlie 
accuracy of the eye, its recolleftions of the nature 
of lines, and lorms, and their correfpondencies to each 
Other, but muft by ftrift analyfis, examine the truth. 
of their appearances, and underftand the caufes, the 
f ffeftsj and the applications of their principles. 



PLATE 



44 ON PERSPECTIVEw [htCt. I. 



PLATE XL 

No. J. I< expFanatory of tfie fevcral refrafiion"; of tlie rays of 
light, in. Older to iheir acquiring a true and exatl focUs. 

Tlie outer coat of the eye is termed the fcleroticu ; adjoining 
is tlie cliuroides, which is lined by the retina. B cfij B, is the 
tranfparent part of the fclerotica, called the cornea ; betweert 
which and C C (the cryfiaUinti Itwnor) i> placed the ucfucnm hw' 
tnor. D D the vitreous humor, occupying the remainihg in- 
ternal fpf^ace of (he eye. N the optic nerve, inferted laterally, 
leading to the brain, oo the pupil. 

A is a ray which, (Iriking the eye precifely centrally, needs 
no refraction in its paflage to the bottom of the eye. 

b, is a ray. ftriking the tye in d (the cornea), whofe refraflive 
powers would divert it from the dired^ courfe, to a focus beyond 
the extent of the eye (as F ),) were no other medium inter- 
pofod : but, ill pafliug to F 1, it impinges on (CC) the cryf- 
taliine buinor ; and by this is again converged to a nearer focus 
(V 2) : but as ihisis alfo beyond the limits of the organ, it is, in 
palling out of C C into the vitreous humor, again converged, 
and fails exad'y on the nervous expanfionof the retina; at a third 
focus (F .'3) ; there producing perfect vifion. 

No. 11. It is nGcc/fary to premife, that in explaining the fol- 
lowing examples, the terms ptfrptfnt/eew/wr and horizontal h^-ve no 
relation to the natural horizon, but relate folefy to the pofition 
of lines with refpe<5l to each other: thus the line IC is per- 
pendicular (i. c. at right angles) to the line C b. Thefe figures 
likewife explain many of the terms adopted in treatin2 on per- 
fpeftivc. 

In this example, the upright plane is fuppofed tranfparent, 
and the eye to be fituated at I ; a line drawn dire6i from I, to the 
plane (or pidture) ftrikes it in C ; which is therefore the Center. 
From I to C is termed the difiunce of the pidlure : and is the juft 
diftance at whi'jh a fpeftator (liould furvey the picture. The queft- 
iun is, in wiiat part of the picture the eve (I) will perceive the 
point A t To dcteriiiine thi<, ihc point A is united to the bottom 
(or ground line) of the picture, by a line paralld to I C ; where 
it iiiterfedts the pirlure, at the ground line, is termed its feat on 
the picture ; the foat on the piclurc being united by a line to 
the center C (i. e. its vanifliing point,) it follows, that in fome 
part of this line will be the reprefentation of A : the exact place 
is ibund, by uniting i and A, which give the inttrfi^clion a for 
the true (iUiation of A on the picture to the eye placed at I. 

No. III. is exactly the f;tin'^ ex.tinpK' diverlitiod by a pr^int oij 
each lide A, which worked by the former proccfs, gives for 
1 A 2, tlie reprefentatioft 1 a'?.. 

PLATE 



X.ECT. I.] ON PERSPECTIVE. ^ 45 

PLATE XII. 

Nd. I. Inftead of the points being placed on each 
fide to form a line, in this example, the line is formed 
fonuard. The reprefentation is equally found by ob- 
taining its feat on the picture, and uniting it to its va- 
nifhing point; then drawing A I, B I, to determine 
its perfpe6live length, as a b. 

No. II. Is a curious problem, {hewing the imper- 
fe£lion of the art of perfpe6tive, geometrically confi- 
dered. -Every thing ftanding as in No. I. it appears 
by this figure, that the reprefentation ab (of A B) 
7nay likewife be the reprefentation of any line in any 
dire61:ion,. whofe extremes will give the points ab. 
Thus A 1. A 2. or A3, may equally appear to I, to 
be A B. This being evident, it may be afked, how 
then do we determine with refpe£l to the real forms of 
obje6ts.? The reafon is partly becaufe by perpetual 
ufe the mind acquires the habit of judging, and com- 
paring obje£ls with each other ; and partly becaufe 
the effe61: of light and fhadow decides the matter. 
This figure may illuflrate the fuppofition of undiftin- 
guiflied flopes in the Defart of Arabia, and feems to 
confirm the idea. 

No. III. Is intended to (hew, that when the plane 
wherein any object is fituated is parallel to the picture, 
the reprefentation of the objeft will be parallel to the 
original, and will exaftly follow it: as appears by 
abed, which when beheld by I, correfponds to 
ABCD. ^ 

VOL. III. EdiL7, G PLATE' 



46 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT 1. 

PLATE Xm. 

Is a fe£lioa- explanatory of the principles reafoned 
on in the Lefture. It reprefents the eye of a fpe6tator 
at three differently elevated fituations, I 1. I 2. 1 3. 
The lines drawn from the various points of the obje£ls 
to the eye, (I) fliew, by the fpaces they occupy on the 
upright line A O, immediately before the eye, in what 
proportion the eye difcerns the pairts of fuch objects. 

To 1 1, the (lope A B appears not much larger than 
the fmallfpace BC: GD is totally unfeen by it; as 
is great part of D E; E, E, and G, H, it fees diftin6lly ; 
but H K is a mere line, and therefore its extent is not 
perceivable. 

To 1 2 many of the parts hardly difcernable by I 1, 
are very diflinfct ; and it has a vie.w of HK ; but does 
not fee the top of the houfe, except as a line. 

I 3 has yet greater advantages, which appear on in- 
fpe6lion. 

This example ftiews what is poffible in perfpeftive ; 
not only horizontal, or vertical planes, may be deli- 
neated ; but flopes both upward and downward, when 
furrounded by objefts whofe direfclions are different j 
and which therefore afford a contraft. 

If at any time the ftudent doubts whether a certain 
part of his defign may be feen from the flation he has 
chofen for the eye 5 a fimilar fe£tion will decide the 
./:afe. 

PLATE 



lECT. I.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 47^ 

PLATE XIV. 

After the former example, which has flievvn the na- 
ture of the horizontal plane, and the variations which ' 
occur by reafon of different levels of the eye, this ex- 
ample, which propofes to explain the effefts arifing 
from different levels of the eye, in reference to ver- 
tical planes, will meet with little difficulty in being 
unde flood. We have here alfo fupofed three different 
ftations, at which the eye is placed : 1 1. I 2. I 3. 

I 1 {ecs the edge of th^.houfe A, as a mere line 
only ; but befide having a clear infpe6fion of the in- 
terval Ji D, he fees the fide of the church alfo,- as ap- 
pears by the line C ; this he fees in perfpe£live, as ap- 
pears by the interval CD. D E, he alfo fees, but not 
EF. 

I 2 befide the view^ he has of AB, fees alfo the fide 
of the houfe (B,) but then he does not fee the interval 
CD, otherwife than as a line; neither does he fee 
the interval E F. 

I 3 has a confiderable view of the (ide of the houfe 
B, though he cannot fee CD; he alfo fees the fide of 
the church E F, but has not fo complete a view of 
F G, as 1 2 has, or, efpecially as 1 1 has. 

Thefe examples demonftrate the -propriety of pay- 
ing great attention to the choice of fituation, from 
which obje6ts are beheld: at the fame time, they il- 
luflrate the nature, the power, and the application of 
planes. 

G 2 ■" LECTURE 



48 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. ll. 



LECTURE II. 



XiADiEs AND Gentlemen, 

TVTATURE is ever various in her operations and 
-^ ^ effe£ls ; but, that variety, however diffufc, or 
extended, is, neverthelefs, the refult of certain general 
and permanent principles, whofe fimplicity is accom- 
modated to occafions as they rife, and whofe appli- 
cation is always dire£ted by utility, and by conve- 
nience. 

Art is the imitator of nature, and is never fo truly 
valuable and excellent, as when, like nature, its prin- 
ciples are few, fimple, and facile; and their appli- 
cation general, certain, and evident. It will therefore 
be my endeavour at this opportunity,' to introduce to 
your acquaintance, fome of thofe elements of the 
Practice of Perspective, whofe utility is mofl: 
extenfive. Let us never forget, that our bufinefs in 
treating the natural appearances of objects, is not to 
furpafs, or to vary, but to imitate, them ; and thofe 
are the moft ufeful methods which to the readied ex- 
pedition, unite the happieft certainty. 

I wifh to fuggeft, preparatory to our proceeding to 
practice, that perhaps perfpe6live may be further illufl- 
rated, if v/e confidcr it under two ideas, firft, as Di- 
R E c T ; fecondly, as Reflective. To cx plain my felf, 
I beg you to confider, that, when youfurvey obje£ls, 

of 



I,£CT. 11.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 49 

of what nature foever (whether a fimple lawn, or aa 
extenfive champain) they appear before you, if feen 
by you through a tranfparent medium, as a glafs win- 
dow ; but, it you fee them in a mirror, although their 
general effeft is the fame as before, and their verili- 
mility almoft as decifive, yet in fome refpedts they 
differ. Before, they might be faid to be depicted on the 
window through which you faw them ; now, they may 
be faid to be depi6led on the mirror in which you fee 
them : yet as a pifture, they have the fame forms, the 
fame effects, the fame proportions, and the fame rela- 
tions to each other. The flab which is' under that 
looking-glafs, demonftrates this matter: in looking at 
the flab itfelf (which we term an original obje6t) we 
obferve, that, its front is, and appears to be, neareft 
to us ; whereas, in the glafs, it appears fartheft off. 
This lady's fan, which I lay open on the flab, appears 
in the original fubje6f, to be fituated, with the cir- 
cular edge of the mount furtheft from us, and the 
handle neareft to us ; but, in the glafs, the mount 
feems to approach, and the handle to recede ; cor- 
refpondent to this effeft, you fee the ornamental 
figures on the mount are inverted. This refleO:ive 
quality, enables the mirror to exhibit a mofl perfe6l 
pi£ture of furrounding objefts; and, when objetfs 
thus exhibited are correfpondently fmiilar, the eye is 
hardly induced to acknowledge the deception. This 
fquare tea caddy, whofe four fides are perfe£lly uni- 
form, appears almoft as tangible in the glafs as on 
the flab ^ this round ball, is as evidently a rgund ball 

in 



60 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. H; 

m the glafs, as in my hand; nor would you (were the 
effect of the light and fliade fufpended) be fenfible of 
any difFerence. Since then this reflexive perfpe£tive 
(fliali I (o call it?) is no lefs exaft and determinate than 
the dire6t perfpe61ive, and fince it is abundantly more 
convenient in pra6lice, for fome kinds of fubje^ls, it 
will hereafter, become a principal object of our atten- 
tion. 

To render reflective perfpeclive equally exa£t as the 
dire£l:, is no very difficult matter, fo far- as to anfwer 
our purpofe : it depends on the introduction, the fe- 
leQion, and the fituation of an objeft; forinftance, if we 
wifhed the glafs to become a rcprefentation, or pic- 
ture, of the fan with the handle turtheft from us and 
the circular mount neareft to us, it is but reverfing its 
original iituation, and we obtain our deiire : never- 
thelefs, the figures on the mount are not brought into 
their jull: fituation, but although relieved from their 
topfy-turvy ftate, yet continue reverfed as to right and 
left ; as alfo the letters or whatever writing is on the 
fan. ' 

But our attention is now direCfed to the neceftary 
preparatives for the praClice of perfpe6live : among 
the firft, and moli important, is Consideration, 
and this is to be .applied to feveral articles. If, as 
we have already ftated, the natural horizon be the 
height of the eye, it needs little proof that the fitua- 
tion to be adopted for this principal line, is a fubjeft 
of confideration ; this appears yet more ftrongly, when 
we reflect^ that, if the eye be placed too high, it raifes 

the 



lECT. II.] ON PERSPECTIVE, 51 

the horizontal line proportionately above the juft ele- 
vation at which we are accuftomed to furvey ob* 
jefts, and at which others are fuppofed to view them ; 
it treats us as if we were giants, or were exalted on 
ftilts J and if we lower the horizon, none but dwirfs 
will thank us. In fa6t, as nature has proportioned 
us to the world about us, our beft way is to ccnfult 
that moderation which is moft general, and moft con- 
venient. Security is in the medium j avoiding ex- 
tremes. 

Moreover, as a piece of perfpeftive is a reprefenta* 
tion of certain objefts from a given ftation, to which 
it is mofi: intimately adapted, we fhould (if it may be 
done) endeavour to accommodate the principles of a 
fubjeft to the fituation from whence it is moft likely to 
be infpe£led ; fince the nearer that fituation may be 
brought to correfpond to the original ftation, the nearer 
will the effe£t of the compoiition approach to verifimi- 
lity: this, therefore, is alfo to be confidered. And, if 
in a picture intended for a certain place, in any apart- 
ment, an artift fhould omit to obferve on which fide 
the light entered, and fliould, therefore, caft his (liadows 
toward the window, and his lights from it, 1 fliould 
think he flood in great need of the article to which 
we are attending, and that, to fay no worfe, he was a 
Very inconfiderate praftitioner. 

The infinite variety of cafes conne£led with thefe 
remarks, preclude the pofTibility of rules which may 
be generally adapted to them : but, on the laft article 
of confideration, which at this time I fliall fubmit to 

vour 



52 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. II. 

your candour, the Diftance for which a pi6^ure is con- 
ftru6led, and from which it fliould be viewed, — fome- 
what like rules, or an advance towards them, may be 
attained: it is, I fay, poffible to fuggeft regulations 
for the Distance of the pifture. 

Perfpe6tive fuppofes, that, objects may be fituated 
fo clofe to a fpettator, that he cannot fee them ; and, 
in fa6t, our daily praftice toward objefts of any confi- 
derable magnitude, juftifies this fuppofition ; fmce we 
conflantly recede from fuch objefts, to a proper dif- 
tance at which to view them, as obferved on a former 
occafion. An additional remark, may confirm this idea. 

I conceive it needs little proof, that the boundary 
of the fpace of vifion, or of the rays received by the 
eye, is a circle ; for fmce the orifice of the pupil is cir- 
cular, it cannot well be otherwife. Now as the two 
outlines, or boundaries, of the vifual rays from the 
' two eyes, at a little diftance from the perfon, have 
precifely the efFeft of one only ; it appears clearly, 
that nature never intended any ob)e£f, whofe diameter 
is too large to be comprifed within the fpace of that 
circle, fliould be furveyed clofer than that ftation, 
which produces the effeft of compounding thefe circles. 
In fa£i, the internal humors of the eye are obliged 
to affume a form difl^erent from their ufual one, when 
they with to accommodate themfelves to the infpec- 
tion of obje6is introduced within this diftance; which, 
perhaps after all, are ufually feen with one eye (the 
other becoming quiefcent), or are at Icali, belt feen 
with one eye only. 

'1 A fimilar 



[lECT. II. ON PERSPECTIVE. 53 

A fimilar mode of reafoning greatly enforces the im- 
portance of this article in relation to fubjc61s not foclofely 
approximated, but of larger dimenfions, feen diredly 
forzvard; and, if we advert to fubjed^s feen la/n'alij/y 
we fhall find, that by a bad diftance, the confufion of 
rays admitted (ideways into the eye is very much in- 
creafed, and what " being remote from the center, is 
naturally difordered and indeterminate," now becomes 
infufferable. 

Permit me by a familiar example to illuftrate this 
matter. When two perfons ftand converfing clofe to- 
gether, they naturally look at each other about the 
height of the eye, and, confequently, fee very little 
more of each other than the face ; as is evident, from 
the neceflity, if their converfation fliould happen to have 
any reference to the foot, for a motion of the head to 
infpect it : which motion of the head be it remem- 
bered, deranges totally the former fyftem of perfpec- 
tive, as it changes entirely the field of view. But, 
if a perfon wiflied to furvey another from head to 
foot, it would require a fpace between them of at 
leaft double the height of the beholder. And the fame 
is true of latitude, as of altitude. It is certain, that if 
a very precife infpe£lion of every part was defired, this 
diftance is not calculated for that purpofe, but, for a 
general, complete, view of a perfon's whole figure, 
this is the lead diftance at which the angle of vifion 
could receive, and contain, fuch an object. 

To the choice of a judicious diftance, which is a 
principal care of intelligent artifts, the following hints 
may contribute, 

VOL. III. Edit. 7, » If 



54 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lBCT. 11, 

If the center of the perfpedTive fyftem adopted in a 
compofitlon be about the middle ot a picture, the dif- 
tance may be fhorler than if it were at either fide of 
the piece ; fmce before obje61s become fufficiently re- 
mote from the center to appear diftorted, the pi£lure 
ends : on the contrary, when the center is near one 
fide of a piflure, a longer diftance will be moft advan- 
tageous to objects fituated further from it. 

I do not fee much difficulty in determining, geome- 
trically, the diftance requifite, if what I lately offered 
be juft J for, if to furvey a perfon five feet in height 
twice five feet is a neceflary interval, to double the 
height of the eye in treating fmaller fubjefts, or, by 
increafing the diftance, to fuit the apparent dlmenfions 
of principal objects in larger pieces, is no great trou- 
ble. But, unfortunately, geometry is an unaccom- 
modating kind of fcience, and very adhefive to prin- 
ciples it has once affumed ; therefore I with to leave 
the matter rather to judgment, than to geometry. 

The general nature of a fubje6f, the particular 
natures of objects introduced, the fituation for 'which 
the performance is adapted, the fource of its light, 
and the principal effe£l of its compofition, are all fo 
many varieties, againft which there is ' no provid- 
ing by rule : a miniature picture, is one thing ; a 
ceiling piece, is another : that which well becomes a 
church, ill fuits a cabinet : that which occupies half 
a paniiel in a parlour, is certainly diftin6t from a 
vifta deception in a park j and requires no lefs dif- 
tin£tion of management. But, having fixed the height 
of the eye, and having chofen a diftance from whence 

the 



LECT. II.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 56 

the obje£ls reprefented in the picture may be moft 
conveniently feen, we proceed to prepare the picture 
for practice : by which, I mean nothing more than 
infcribing upon it thofe imaginary lines, to whofe 
properties we have already paid fome attention. Firji^ 
rule the horizontal line, then, having determined its 
center, ereft there the vertical line ; thus we have 
two lines, whereon all relative planes (z, e. horizontal 
or vertical) will vanilh. Moreover, as all horizontal 
planes will vanifh on the horizontal line, we have the 
proper vanifliing point for them in the center j be- 
caufe the vanifhing point to any plane (in whatever 
diredion) is that point at which a line drawn from the 
eye, parallel to that particular plane, ftrik.es the pic- 
ture. 

Obferve further, that, thefe two planer are of ne- 
ceffity perpendicular to each other j I fay the hori^ 
zontal plane is perpendicular to the vertical plane, 
and the vertical plane to that : for as to the (ituation 
of this or of any plane, with refpeft to the natural 
horizon, let that now be forgot. 

We have already obferved, that planes are in fa6t of 
a fimilar conftru^lion, whatever be their pofition j and 
therefore the vertical plane is perfectly correfpondent 
in its conftru6tion, and its properties to the horizontal, 
and differs only' by (ituation, as being ere6t upon it. 
The center beam, or ray, from the eye, is parallel 
likewife to the vertical plane, and gives the central 
point of this plane for its vanifhing point : i. e. where 
the horizontal and tlie vertical planes interfeft each 

H 2 other. 



56 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. H. 

Other. To demonftrate this, take any perfpe6tive ex- 
ample, turn it, till the vertical plane becomes the ho- 
rizontal plane, and you will fee, evidently, that it is 
governed by the fame center, and condu£ted by the 
fame principles. 

Thus far, I hope our principles are clear, and lu- 
minous ; referring to the examples for certain in- 
ftaiiccs of their application, I (hall now offer a few 
remarks relative to the introduction, and the appear- 
ance, of objects reprefented in perfpedive. 

I think it moft familiar to my auditory, to revert to 
the mirror, to illuflrate this particular, as the reverfion 
of obje6\s will hereafter appear to be of no real detri- 
ment, or confequence : in fa8:, whenever geometrical 
plans of original objects are ufed (and on many occa- 
fions they are to a learner very convenient), their per- 
fpeftive reprefentations become reverfe ; but fuch 
plans are not always necefTary, as, by the given di- 
menfions of obje6ts, a mafter will generally afcertain 
their reprefentations.— To proceed. 

That upright looking - glafs reprefents an upright 
pi6ture ; the llab before it, the ground ; where the 
bottom of the glafs touches the flab, is, of courfe, the 
ground line. I lay on the flab, this fquare board, clofe 
along the bottom of the glafs, which, on looking into 
the glafs, I fee thus : the flab, and the board are pa- 
ralltl to the ray fhot from the eye to the center, (or 
received by the eye into its center,) which ray is per^ 
pendicular to the glafs. Now, as the center is the 
jiatural vanilhing point of all lines perpendicular to 

the 



LECT. II.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 57 

the pi6ture, the two perpendicular fides of the board 
apparently tend to that point : i. e. the centerj the 
nearefl: part of the plane to the eye : the other two 
(ides of the fquare being parallel to the pi8ure (the 
glafs in this experiment) futfer no change of form from 
any perfpeftivity connected with them, except an 
apparent diminution of magnitude, as they recede: 
the mort: diftant being the fmalleft. By the bye, this 
want of perfpeQivity in the parallel fides of a fquare, 
obliges us to feek for fome line which may have a 
determinate, and exa6l, relation to a fquare, and alfo 
to the horizon ; this we obtain, by means of the dia- 
gonals, whofe angular declination from the fides being 
45 deofrees, sfives 45 deo-rees from the center, on the 
horizontal line, for their vanifliing point ; as is illuf- 
trated in the examples. 

But, my chief defign in this experiment is to fliew, 
that the effects we have been noticing arife from the 
parallelifm of the vifual rays and the ground plane. 
Now, in defign, we cannot caufe a variety of planes, 
and of lines, to project perpendicular from a pifture; 
we therefore tranfpofe their places, and imagine the 
eye and its fyftem of rays turned upward, and the 
flab. Sec. [i. f. all before the ground line of a pifturel 
turned downward; and this reftores the parallelifm, 
and produces the fame effefts ; fo that now a fingle 
flieet of paper contains the whole procefs. 

Right lines, having a regular, and determinate per- 
fpe8ive tendency, are eafily put into perfpe6iive re- 
prefentation ; and angular figures, being corapofed of 

right 



58 ON PERSPECTIVE. [tECT. 21. 

right lilies, have little difficulty ; finee we have accu- 
rate data to condu6t us: but, circular, or curved, 
lines offer no fuch data, and therefore oblige us to call 
in affiftance from our worthy friends, whofe tendency 
is regular and determinate. 

A circle, is a figure fo complete and perfe6i in Itfeif, 
that it eludes every attempt to difcover to what point 
in perfpeO.ive any part of its line has any peculiar re- 
lation: any relation of which we may take advantage: 
the readied way therefore to obtain the reprefentation 
of a circle, is, by infcribing it in a fquare of equal dia- 
meter, and, taking advantage of thofe points where- 
in the two figures correfpond •, hereby we obtain a 
fketch, or fkeleton, of the circle ; which is capable of 
more, or lefs, accuracy, according to the divifions, 
and fuh divifions, of the original fquare. Eight points 
are generally thought fufficient in practice ; but more 
may eafily be obtained, if the fquare be large enough 
to render them necelfary. 

Nor on this occafion onlv is a fquare of great uti- 
lity ; a little confideration will find it a very confe- 
quential figure ; as well, becaufe its form is perpetu- 
ally occurring, (as is likewife a circle) as becaufe any 
other figure infcribed within it, by properly fub- 
dividing the fquare, may be reprefented with little 
trouble. 

Having faid a fquare, and a circle, are figures per- 
petually occurring, give me leave to authenticate my 
pofition. If we examine obje6ls in theftreet; — the 
fronts of houfcsare fquare, their windows fquare, their 

doors 



LECT. II.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 5^ 

doors fquare ; — churches the fame; or at leaft, fquares 
combined with circles : their domes are circular, as 
are all arches, and fo on. The internal parts of our 
dwellings are equally compofed of fquares ; — apart- 
ments, and their furniture, tables, chairs, &c. moftly 
fquares: not only i'o, but many of our domeftic fquares 
generate circles, as for inftance, all which turn upon 
hinges ; the hinge becomes a center, while the door 
itfelf jh opening defcribes a circle on the floor : not 
only architedural columns are compofitions of circles, 
but fo are many other objects which might be named, 
even to tea-cups and faucers. 

By a kind of analytis fimilar to this, we reduce a 
piece of perfpe61ive to its fiifl: principles. Buildings, 
may be confidered as right lines, or as compofed of 
right lines, crofled by other right lines at certain 
angles, and defcribing folids, or apparent folids, either 
elevated on, or adjoining to, each other; and, extremes 
of lines are mere points. 

By an inverfe procefs we compofe the whole ; 
firft, we find the perfpeftive fituation of one point, 
then of another beyond it ; thefe united make a line : 
in the fame manner other lines are made ; which 
attached to the former, by degrees become a folid : 
folids raifed on each other, or adjoining to each other, 
compofe buildings; whofe extent, how large foever, 
is merely an addition of folids to folids, and parts to 
parts, fo related, that, having adjufted one part truly, 
the others are eafily determined. 

The almoft irrefiftible effeft of regularity may be 
veryjuftly inferred from hence; and not lels juftly, 

the 



60 oy PERSP^ECTivE. [lect. II 

the neceffity of a careful beginning, and an orderly 
progreiiion. Perfpeciive, in this refpe6t, is an em- 
blem of life; how many perfons have proceeded 
from a point to a line, and trom lines to a fu- 
perftru£lure, whofe termination they did not forcfee, 
when the firft line was fuggeftcd, or the firft point 
conceded. 

Since I have thus introduced analyfis, I fhall requclT 
your attention, Ladies and Gentlemen, to a tew 
additional remarks. The perfpeciive, I have the ho- 
nour to introduce to you, is founded on the do£trine 
of planes; and planes are in effed: more univerfal than 
fuperficial obfervation may imagine. We have already 
faid, they appear around us in the ftreet, and fo they 
do in the parlour ; the fides of a room are planes, as 
well as the celling, and the floor. What is this table 
but a plane ? its face is a horizontal plane ; as I let 
down a flap, that flap becomes an inclined plane; a 
door is an inclined vertical plane when partly open, 
though not diflinguilhed when Ihut ; a chair becomes 
an inclined plane when falling ; and if we go out of the 
room, the ftairs are inclined planes, and fo are ceilings 
above them ; (o are roofs of houfes, and fo are all in- 
equalities of hills and dales in the mod extenlive prof- 
peel. 

Thefe principles will be more largely explained in 
the examples; which I beg you not to pafs over 
(lightly, but to delineate with care. It has been my 
endeavour fo to fele61, and arrange them, that each 
naturally leads to its fucceflbr; and that they might 
2 compofe 



LECT. II. ON PERSPECTIVE. Gl 

compofe a connefted chain of precepts, in which a 
lludent may proceed gradually, 

Thought following thought, and ftepby ftep led on 

I {hall juft hint, that it is not always neceflary to 
have, on a drawing, every line to every point, at 
once ; but, after thofe relating to one obje6l have 
been drawn with the pencil, and the requifite parts 
inked in, the pencil lines may be difmiffed. In 
fome cafes it is fcarcely neceflary to draw lines at 
all, but, by laying the edge of a ruler from point to 
point, fo much of that line may be taken as occafion 
requires. 

Nor would I advife my friends to draw by the 
regular procefs of perfpedive, every minute parti- 
cular in a compofition, every ornament of a mould- 
ing, or every inequality of furface : the principal 
lines and fpaces, if juftly inferted, will regulate 
the inferior ; and trifling obje6is are not worth the 
time, and the trouble, they wafte. Be it always 
remembered, that the utility of perfpedive is to 
deceive the eye of a fpe6tator j and furely an eye 
and a hand accuftomed to infpe'61", and to operate, 
by judicious principles, whofe intelligence arifes 
from fyftematic knowledge, will be very adequate 
to'fuch deception; always fuppofmg, that the ob- 
je6fs in queftion have been well underftood, and 
that pra6lice has imparted a facility in their delinea- 
tion ; and indeed, I may juftly alTert, that many 
obje£ts are with more eafe and readinefs delineated 
from their originals, by an accurate hand, than by 
the rules of perfpe£tive ; of which the capitals of 

VOL. Ill, Edit.l. I columns, 



62* ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. II, 

columns, efpecialiy of enriched, e.^r, of Corinthian 
columns, are decifive, but by no means fingular in- 
Ibnces. 

As in the ftudy of mufic, notwithftandlng an in- 
ftrument may be very accurately eonftrufted, and 
very nicely toned, to excel in playing on it requires 
a good natural ear, improved by attentron, and 
pra£lice ; fo in the arts of defign, of which per- 
fpe£live is a principal part, be the rules ever fo ju- 
dicious, clear, demonftrable, and extenfive, yet to 
execute any compoiition happily, and gracefully, 
requires the guidance of an eye accuftomed to ob- 
fervation and remark, exercifed in effef^s of na- 
tural objects, fenfible of their moft beautiful combi- 
nations, and difpofed, and ready, to imitate them : 
thus accompliihed, it may juftly hope, not only to 
apply with facility the principles of fcience and tafte, 
buf> 

" To fnatch a grace 6EV0Nir the rItles of art." 

I have thrown out thefe hints, becaufe learneftly 
wifli to diveft this ftudy of every incumbrance by 
which it has long been held, as it were, in thral- 
dom J entangled by operofe diagrams, and infinite 
radii of lines j whofe perplexities contribute to ren- 
der that difficult and complex, which is, and which 
ought to be, reprefented as fimple and clear. I ra- 
ther defire to difentangle, and to explain, difficul- 
ties, where difficukies muft in fome fenfe, be ex- 
pe6\ed, in which undertaking I have to requeft your 
candour, and, if fuccefs crown my endeavours, 1 
have to expe^l your applaufc. 

OBSER- 



LECT. II.] ON PERiPECTIVE. 63 

O BS ERVAT IONS 

On the Plates belonging to Lecture II. 

IN the following plates, it has been endeavoured 
to preferve an uniformity of references and 
marks, in order to inform the ftudent, at firft fight, 
which are the principal lines, and points, made ufe 
of in their conftru6lion. Thus, I, means the place 
of the natural eye, which is ^rc/?/^o/?rf according to 
the principles explained in the Lecture, page 57. 
HL is ufed to mark the Horizontal Line, C 
denotes the Center, or dired ray from the eye to 
the pifture, and the bottom of each example is the 
ground hne. 

It is further to be noticed, that the distance is 
throughout thcfe examples, generally, too fliort, for 
objects (ituated laterally , in order to avoid the mul- 
tiplication of plates ; for the fanie reafon, the ex- 
amples are drawn on the horizontal plane, but it 
will be very advantageous to the lludent to turn 
them, and to accuftom himfelf to view, and to de- 
lineate, them, in varioiis pofitions, as their conftruc- 
tion is precifely the fame in all. By this method 
every example becomes as ufeful, as two, or three. 

It is obvious to remark, that, al] figures put into 
perfpe6^ive by means of geometrical plans are re- 
verfe from their originals ; this reverfion is eafily ac- 
commodated to truth, by changing the position of 
the plan, by which means all confufion is avoided. 
Perfpeclive plans may be formed without the geo^ 
metrical figure, by given meafures, and angles. 



I 2 PLATE 



64 ON PERSPECTIVE, [lECT. II. 

PLATE XV. 

LINES IN PERSPECTIVE. 

No. I. This example (hews the method of, putting into 
pevfpe6live a right line, as A B ; or part of a right hne, 
as A 1 ; or a fimple point, as A. Having placed (H L) 
the horizontal line, and determined the center (C) and 
the diflance (CI) I is the tranfpofed place of the natural 
Eye. If A be coniidered as a point, unite it to the 
ground line, by a right line in any direction at pleafui-e 
(as at B) ; rule from I, a line, parallel to this line, to- 
wards H L (as near L) ; then, the point where it ftrikes 
H L, is the vanifhing point to A B : unite B to this point 
by a liae, in fome part of which line will the reprefenta- 
tion of A be found. To afcertain its exact place on this 
line, imite A to I, the interfection of the two lines marks 
the fpot as at a. It is evident, that the rcprefentation of 
the line A 1 may be determined, by treating the point 1 
as we have already treated the point A ; which will give 
its feat on the line B L at 2. The rcprefentation of the 
whole line A B, which is B, 2, a^ is equally readily found, 
as appears by the hgure. 

The dirc6lion of the original line, drawn from the point 
A, to the ground line, is of no confequence, or etiecl ; in 
every direftion its parallel from I muft be drawn to H L. 

No. II. Is a variation from the former example, b}' 
fuppofing the original line to be pcrpotdlcular to the 
pi6ture. The principal fvftematic lines are as before, 
in this cafe, as the line A B, or the line D E, would natu- 
rally vanilh in C (which is its parallel), we are concerned 
only to determine it& length ; this is obtained, ni A B, 
by uniting A and I, the interfcclion gives Ba for the 
length of B A : but, as D E, if united to I, yet continues 
a mere line, we muft find other lines by whofe alfiftance 
to cut off its proportion : lUiite E to the ground line, by 
a line \q any direction, as c ; and bv a parallel line unite 
D a:j ft ; then, by a parallel from 1 to H L we obtain a 
point, to which, when the interlcclions e and d on the 
ground line, are united, they ^wcfg for the reprefeuta- 
tion of D E the original line. 

PLATE 



LtCT II.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 65 

PLATE XVI. 

No. I. A SQUARE IS a figure compofed of four 
fides; two perpendicular to the other two: if a 
fquare be fituated with two fides parallel to the pic- 
ture, it is evident the two other fides will be per- 
pendicular to that picture : thefe may be confidered 
as two lines, placed as in the foregoing example, 
which naturally vanifli in C, to which therefore 
unite ihem : to determine their lengths as feen in 
perfpeftive, rule a diagonal line from the oppofite 
corners of the original fquare, which line unite to 
the ground line ; rule its parallel from I to H L, 
and unite its feat on the ground line to that point 
in H L fo procured ; its interfedlions, will cut 
one line of the two drawn to C, in its nearcfl 
part, and will cut the other line, in its furtheft part : 
from thefe interfections, lines parallel to H L will 
complete the figure. Ex. gr. A, B, D, E, is an ori- 
ginal fquare; produce AD, and BE, to the ground 
line, as, 1, 2, thefe vanifh in C ; produce alfo E A, 
to the ground line, this yaniflies in its parallel I L, 
and gives ad be for the reprefentation of the origi- 
nal fquare. A, D, B, E. 

N. B. The diagonal of a fquare being naturally 
45 degrees, if an angle of 45 degrees be made from 
I and continued to H L (as at H), it will give H 
for the vanifliing point of fuch a line ; without the 
neceffity of recurring to the lines of the original 
figure. 

No. II. Reprefents a fquare lying obliquely to the 
pi£ture: continue the fides EB, ED, to the ground 
line, as 1 2, and alfo the fides DA, B A ; as 3,4: 
find the vanifhing points on H L, by lines from I, 
parallel to EB, and to ED; the feats on the ground 
jine (1,2) of the original figure, united to thofe 
points, give abde for its reprefentation. 

PLATE 



66' ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. 11. 



PLATE XVII. 

No, I, Is a TRIANGLE in perfpe£tive : its re- 
prefentation is obtained, by uniting two of its fides, 
DB, and AB, to the ground line, as 1,2; lines 
parallel to thefe originals, drawn from I to H L, 
give the vanilhing points of thofe two fides ; to 
which points, rule their interfe£tions on the ground 
line, which give 6, d, for their length; a line parallel 
to H L, uniting thefe interfe6tions, completes the 
figure, and gives a, rf, for the reprefentation of AD. 
The veracity of this procefs is provedy by uniting D 
and A to I, which equally give the points fl, d. 

On this plate and the foregoing, the reader will 
ebferve flightly marked figures of like nature with 
the principal; {hewing how to adjuft a feries, as 
of fquares, &c. forming for inftance, a pavement. 
This is accompliflied by ufmg the dimenfions of the 
perfpe£live reprefentation already obtained, as a 
fcale, and marking them on a horizontal line, level 
with fuch reprefentation. In the plate of fquares, 
the fcale is Ihewn advancing toward C : and if the 
original fquare be fuppofed to be in width any num- 
ber of feet, 10, 20, &:c. this fcale fhews the pro- 
grefiive diminution of that dimenfion. The reader 
will alfo obferve how readily a figure reverfe from 
the firft is procured, &;c. The fame procefs may be 
ufed on the vertical plane, for vertical objects. 



PLATE 



lECT.U.] ON PERSPECTIVE, .6? 



PLATE XVIIL 

No. I. Is the procefs of putting into perfpeftivc a pen- 
tagon, and is in its operation precifely the fame as for- 
mer figures. A D E B F is an original figure ; unite the 
various fides to the ground Une (as AD at 1 : E B at 2 ; 
and A F, B F, as near F) : parallel to D A 1 draw from 

I, I K ; parallel to E B 2 draw from I, IJ ; draw likewife 
from I) parallels to AF and to B F. The various feats 
of the original lines on the ground line, drawn to their 
refpeftive vanifhing points, form the figure. E. gr. I 
to K gives ad; 2 to J gives b e : and fo of the others : a 
line from d lo e parallel to H L completes the procefs. 

In treating afquare^ No. I. Plate XVI. we obferved, that 
if an angle of 45 degrees had been made at I, it would 
have given the fajne points for Vanifliing points as the 
formation of an original angular line does. In the fame 
manner, the points for a regular pentagon, and for any 
polygonal figure, may be found according to the follow- 
ing TABLE. 

^., Angles at tbe Angle trade by 

Center, the Sides, 

4. A fquare makes an angle of 90" 90* 

5. A pentagon 72 108 

6. An hexagon 60 — — 120 

1. An heptagon — — 51| 128^ 

8. An octagon -^ ■ 45 • 135 

9. A nonecagon 40 ■ - ■ 140 

10. A decagon ■-^ — 36 -^-= — 144 

II. An undecagon 32,\- — —^ ^'^■"^1% 

12. A duodecagon — ^-^ 30 » 150 

The angle at the center of a regular polygon is found 
by dividing 360 bv the number of fides : thus 360 di- 
vided by 5, gives 12 degrees for the angle at the center 
of a pentagon: 360 divided by 6, gives 60 degrees for 
the angle at the centef of an hexagon. But the angle 
made by the two adjacent fides of a polygon is found by 
fubtrafting the angle at the center, from 180 degrees ; 
thus from 180 take 72, there remain 108 degrees, which 
is the angle made by the fides of a pentagon : if from 180 
t»-e take 60, there remain 120 degrees, for the angle made 
\>y the, fides of an l^exagon, and fo of others, 

- PLATE 



68 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. II. 

PLATE XIX. 

No. I. This example fhews the readieft method of 
putting a circle into perfjieclivc : fiift, form the fquare 
A, D, E, B, round the circle, which it touches in four 
points; each angle of the fquare is bifeiSled, by ruling 
through the centre of the circle diagonals to the oppofite 
corners ; where tlicfe ftrike the circumference of the 
circle, rule lines parallel to AD, and to BE; thus we 
have four additional points : unite the original lines to 
the ground line, and likewife one for the diagonals, as at 
A: thcfe, prolonged to the vaniiliing points, will give for 
the feat of the circumference of tlie circle, firft, the fides 
of the fquare; fecondly^ four additional points (i, 2, 3, 4, 
correfponding to the fame numbers in the figure) indicated 
by the interfeclions of the tnuifvcrfe lines : thefe eight 
points, united carefully, will defcribe a circle. It is ob- 
vious to remark, that the fame eight points would repre- 
fent an octagon, if united by riglit lines, infi:ead of circular. 

No. II. Is a circle put into pejfpective by means of 
its given diameter 1 2 : the fyftematic lines as ufual. Set 
one foot of the compafies in H, and with the opening 
HI, firike IB: then with the opening LI, ftrike I A: 
through the middle of I 2, draw a line from C, like- 
wife another from II, and another from L: then the 
points which form tlie circunifcrcnco are tlms found ; 
1 and 2 are already given ; as i)eiiig the original line ; 

3 is found by drawing L 2, which cuts the line 3 C in 3; 

4 is found by drawing L 1, whicii cuts the line 3 C in 4; 
.5 is found by drawing B 2, Avhich cuts the line 5 H in 5 } 

6 is found by drawuig B 1, which cuts the line 5 II in 6 ; 

7 is found by drawing A 1, which cuts theline 7't.'iii T; 

8 is found by drawing A 2, which cuts tlie lino 7 L iuTi^ ; 
the points thus procured, mult be carefully united: this 
method ferves for an o6lagon aifo ; and is the readieft 
way to reprefent circles within others. 

PLATE 



.LECT. II.] ON PERSPECTIVE. C9 

PLATE XX. 

No. I. Shews the effcfl of circles forming a cy- 
linder, (landing ere61, and is an advance toward 
putting folid bodies into perfpe6tive. C is the 
center i CY the horizontal line. The dillance is 
fomewhat more than double C Y, and may be con- 
ceived as placed at the other extremity of that line, 
but is omitted in the plate, and its half diftance 
marked *. 

We may obfervc, that, as a cylinder ib appa- 
rently to the eye, two circles united by right lines, 
fo to put this figure into perfpeftive, form firfl the 
inferior circle (by No. 2, if you pleafe) ; then ere£t 
perpendiculars, and form the fuperior circle by the 
fame method. This example may likewife be per- 
formed, from having only a fingle line given as a dia- 
meter, as i 2 ; which has been already illuftrated. 

No. II. Reprefents the efFe6l of circles when pa- 
rallel to the pi6iure; as in a cylinder lying along the 
ground. Circles, parallel to the pi8ure, fuffer no 
change in their fliape, but only in their fize. On 
the ground line as at A, and B, place the diflanccs 
between the circles. Firji, Afcertain the feat of 
the cylinder, which rule to the center C, its proper 
vanifliing point ; then rule A and B to their vanifh- 
ing point: at the interfeftion of A, with the feat 
of the object:, raife a perpendicular ; and, taking the 
propofed diameter of the circle, ftrike the circum- 
ference from a: rule a to the center C ; and on this 
line will be fituated the centers of every other circle, 
neceffary to defcribe the figure; as appears at b, &c. 
" VOL. III. Edit.l. K PLATE 



70 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. II. 

PLATE XXI. 

No. I. Shews how to reprefent a folid fquare, or 
cube: and is performed by finding firft the per- 
fpeftive feat of its plan ; vide No. I. Plate XVI. 
which gives a b for the feat of A. B. On the ground 
line ered the propofed height of the object, as at D, 
which unite to C : then at a and b ereft perpendi- 
culars, which will be cut by the line D C, at their 
proper height, and form the neareft face of the 
fquare, as at a ^ 1 3. The further face of the fquare 
is found by the fame means ; and the top ot it, by 
ruling from the interfeclions with D C, lines parallel. 
to H L, as 2 4, and 1 3, to complete the figure. 

No. II. Illuftrates the principles of the perfpe£tive 
reprefentation of a pyramid : firft, find its perfpe.c- 
tive plan ; vide No. II. Plate XVI. For the height 
of the objeft, take/^- perpendicular to the ground 
line; find the center of the plan of the pyramid, by 
drawing the crofs line a b ; then draw d towards C, 
till it interfe£ls a b ; raife on this center a perpendi- 
cular; where it is cut by g H is the top of the py- 
ramid ; to which rule abdXo complete the figure. 



PLATE 



LECT. n.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 71 

PLATE XXII. 

No. I, A cube in perfpe6tive, ftanding oblique 
to the pi61ure : find its perfpeftive plan, as before : 
ereft perpendiculars from its extremes; for the 
height, draw 5 H, which gives by its interfe61ions 
part of the top ; from L draw lines through thefe 
interfe£lions, which by cutting the remaining per- 
pendiculars complete the figure. Obferve, that 
when the fquare ilood parallel to the pifture, as in 
No. I. Plate XXI. the height was ruled to C, the 
center; but when it (lands oblique, the height is 
ruled to the vanifhing points of the fides. 

A cube, like a cylinder, is compofed of fimilar 
faces united by right lines, and therefore may be 
confidered as being two perfpe£live plans of the 
fame figure, at different heights, connected together 5 
and the fame idea may be attached to various poly- 
gonal figures. 

No. II. Is a double crofs in perrpe6live: ABCD 
is the ground line, on which the thicknefs of the up- 
right is to be marked, as BC; and the extent of the 
crofs bar, as AD: thefe meafures are ruled to L 
(the center in this example), and by the diagonal D 
ruled to H, form a fquare, which is the plan of the 
figure. On C ere£t a perpendicular to receive the 
meafures for the heights, as G F, and E ; from the 
interfe61ions of the plan, raife perpendiculars for 
the upright, as from b cf\ where thefe are cut by 
the meafures G L, FE, and E Lj rule horizontal lines 
for the fituations of the bars, whofe lengths are deter- 
mined by perpendiculars from the plan below: thus 
1 2 are governed by a h\ and 3 4, by ^/e: the figure 
diftin6lly defcribes the whole. 

No. III. Another crofs which ftands oblique io 
the pifture : it follows the fame rules as the former^ 
except as to the obliquity of its vanilhing points, as 
appears by the figure. 

K 2 PLATE 



72 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. ll. 

P L A T E XXIII. 

Though tircles parallel to the pi61iir<- be extremely eafyj 
vet the moft troublefome fubjefts in perlpct^ive are reprefenta-> 
tion-s ot circular members, and objects, in cnnipofitions of ar- 
chitefture, wlien leen obliquely. Their fcjuaras and cubes 
follow the principles recently illuftrnted, but by way of ex- 
plaining the difliculty of iheir circular parts,, we fliall offer lh«i 
following method of delineating them. 

THE TUSCAN BASE IJf FERSP ECT f VE. 

The diffirully in this inflance is, to reprefent the fwell erf 
the torus : to accomplifli which, make a Iketcii of the parts 
intended to be reprefented, as near as convenient to the place 
they are to occupy, as at X, divide this into as many parts as 
are requilite, as horizontally at 2, and vertically at x. 

Take ax for the height of the plinth: divide the torus itfelf 
in halt, as at 2, for its height, and .i for its width : rule x per^ 
pendicular, and 2 horizontal : then where the line x touches the 
outline of the torus, rule lines parallel to 2, as ], 3 ; rule alfo 
4, .5, parallel to 2. 

Put the plinth into perfpedive as ufual. Having procured 
the perfpeclive center of the bale, o, by ruling the dia- 
gonals of the plinth, raife a perpendicular, as o K ; through 
o, draw a line for one diameter, parallel to D B, and from the 
half of D B as A, draw through o, to the vanif^ing point S, 
for the other diameter. Procure the plan of the circles as 
already explained At A cred a line,, which is to receive 
the divilions made on the origmal Iketch, 1, 2, 3, -I-, 5 ; this 
now rcprefents their heights : to reprefent their projections, 
fet off their meafures from the point A, as to J, from the points 
A 1,2, 3, 4, 5, draw lines to the vanilhing point, cutting the 
line oK, in 1,2, 3, 4, 5. Thus we have the line A 5 for the 
heights of the figure next to the eye, and the line o K for their 
heights at the lemi-diameter of the column. Now rule the 
meafures of the projections, which are marked between A and 
J to their vanilhing point, and where they ftrike the plans of 
the circles alr<fady formed, eredt perj^endiculars, as at a, b, c, 
the points where thefe perpendicuhirs are cut by the lines 
A 1, 2, 3, 4, .5, in their progref, to r,K 1, 2,. 3, 4, .^, are fo 
many points on the oullinc of the torus, and othef parts of 
the original Iketch, which if carefully united, will delcribe its 
whole form. 

Having lound the perfpective reprefentation of the figure 
in its part ncarelt to the eye, rule fj-om the line oK. hori- 
zontal lines which denote heights, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ; and as before, 
on the points u-here the plans of the circles arn cut by th« 
widths of the members, erect perpendiculars, forming fo many 
fedlions of the figure, in fuch parts oi" the circumlercnce as 
as may be th ought iieceflary. 

PLATE- 



L:RCT. II.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 7S 



PLATE XXIV. 

■ A TUSCAN CAPITAL IN PERSPECTIVE. 

In order to vary the Rpplication of the foregoing 
principles, this objeft is feen underneath. Its di- 
menfions are obtained by forming a fketch of its 
parts adjacent to the fpace it is intended to occupy, 
as A, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Then fix the extent of 
its broadell part neareft to the eye, the abacus, as 
C D : in the middle of this, let fall a perpendicular, as 
J r, which is to receive the heights marked A 1 to 7, 
and from J towards D, fet off the widths, a, b, c, d^ 
Cyfyg, as marked on the original Iketch. Rule the 
heights to L the center, and the widths to H the 
vanifliing point, their interfeftions give points which 
mufl: be carefully united, to form the outline. 

As there is fome patience required in treating fuch 
objefts, the beft way is to procure the extremes 
within which the parts to be reprefented muit fall ; 
as in the former plate between A 5, and c, d, (o in 
this plate between the line J r, and the interfcftioa 
which finds the upright line §■; then take the larger 
members Hrft, and having placed them, with their 
proper intervals, the lefl'er members which fall with- 
in thofe intervals will follow more readily. In fa6l, 
when the ftudent becomes acquainted with the 
forms of obje£ls, and confiders their appearances in 
nature, which after having thus invefligated them he 
will furvey with greatly increafed accuracy of eye, 
he may by means of the leading circles only deli- 
neate with fufficient exa6tnefs the iorms attached 
to them. It is well to know how to ufe fuch prin- 
ciples, when occafion requires; but to employ them 
on all occafions is not necelfary to a pra6lifed eye. 

Thefe examples fliould be turned, and drav»'n on 
the vertical plane, &c. The principles are the fame. 

- PLATE 



'Ji ON PERSPECTIVE, [lECT. II. 

PLATE XXV. 

Shews the infide of an apartment: C the center; 
H L the horizontal line; the windows are placed 
according to meafures given, and fct off on the 
ground line A. 12 3 4 refer to the diftances of the 
window panes. Sec. and being ruled to H, cut the 
line A C, at the proper places, from whence per- 
pendiculars being raifcd, the wall of the window is 
fourKl. The panes being fuppofcd at tlie outer edge 
of the wall, require the continuation of the lines 2 H, 
3 H, crofs the window fill 5, 5, in the neareft wall, 
parallel to HL. The upright meafures, 5, 6, 7, 8,9, 
determine their heights, not only in the neareft wall, 
but (by being ruled to C) in the furtheft wall, by their 
interfedion withit; to which 5,6, 7, 8, 9, are parallel. 
The lines are continued crofs the window fill for the 
panes, in the further wall, to C, as before, along the 
floor; and their diftances from each other are re- 
gulated by the original meafures on the ground line, 
drawn to C, as appears at 1,2, 3, 4, under the win- 
dow. All meafures for horizontal obje^s muft be 
placed on the ground line, or on a line parallel to it, 
in fome convenient part of the pi6^ure ; and all mea- 
fures for vertical obje^ls, on an upright line. 

No. II. Is a rcprefentation of a bureau, with the 
flap open ; which is much the fame as the trap door, 
in the next Plate: e is its hinge,/its edge, ahc the 
circle it forms in opening, OO on the line O X, two 
points which aflift in drawing the circle; X the dif- 
tance of that circle : A is one fide of the bureau per- 
pendicular to the pi6\ure, and B the ground line. 

4 PLATE 



LECT II.] Oil PERSPECTIVE. 75 



PLATE XXVI. 

Suppofing thefe examples fufficientto explain the 
manner of treating folic! bodies, &c. we proceed now 
to fliew the nature of other obje£ts. Jt has already 
been obferved in Lecture II. that all rotatory ob- 
jects form a circle at their circumference, of which 
the hinge is the center : on this principle are the 
doors in this example put into perfpedive. 

Fig. 1. C is the center, HL the horizontal line; 
the breadth of the door is marked on the ground line, 
as AB; and AD is the depth it muft be in the room. 
Draw D H, cutting A C in E ; draw from E, a line 
parallel to the ground line, as E F ; which is cut by 
BC in F, and determines the width of the door at 
that part (if half open) ; F ruled to H will give e for 
the edge of the door, if fuppofed fhut : the femi- 
circle on the floor is formed by the ordinary methods* 
From the bottom of the door E, to the circumference 
of the circle, gives the fituation of the door : the 
fame line continued to H L gives its vanifhing point, 
as at I: perpendiculars from the bottom of the door, 
and its edge, are cut by a line from I, to determine 
its height. In Fig. 2. the door is feen open fome- 
what differently : the fame procefs gives K for its 
vanifhing point ; as is clear by the figure. 

Fig. 3. Is a reprefentation of a trap-door in the 
floor: A B its breadth; which of courfe is the front 
of the aperture. The door C, and its hinge D, are 
iound exactly as the fame parts in the foregoing 
figures J g is one vanilliing point for the quarter of 
a circle, correfponding to the fquare A, D, ^, /. 

If this figure, and thofe of the former numbers 
are turned, and viewed fideways, they mutually il- 
luftrate each other. 

PLATE 



uG ON ?ERSPECT1V£. [lECT. II. 



PLATE XXVII. 

No. I. As all horizontal and vertical planes, and 
obje61s, in every (ituation, however diverfified, fol- . 
low the rules already laid down ; we prefume what 
has been faid may fuffice to explain the method or 
reprefenting them in perrpe6\ive : we proceed now 
to iliuftrate the nature of planes not perpendicular, 
or parallel, to the picture, but inclined to it. 

In this example, C is the center of the pi61ure, 
C I its diftance, H L the vanilhing line of the ground 
plane R Q. The line R * marks the inclination of 
the plane to be reprefented, with the pitlure (and 
)S here fuppofcd 70 degrees.) Through C, draw 
CG, parallel to the line R *, and of equal length to 
the diftance CI; perpendicular to CG, erect CS: 
through S, draw A S B parallel to C G ; this is the 
vanifhing line for the plane propofed, S its center, 
and SG equal to its dillance. 

This objc6l has faces in three different inclina- 
tions; firft, that lying on the ground, which accord- 
ingly vaniihes in the vanifhing points to the ground, 
as (/./and e k \ fecondly, other faces perpendicular 
to the ground, ^^eklgy thirdly, an inclined face 
jiot parallel to either, as dflg-, which is our im- 
mediate objeiSf. EDFis an original plan, whofe 
lines being continued ftrike the ground line in R, 
and Q., &c. Rule R to L, being coincident with 
the ground plane; and Q, and its parallel to H; by 
which we obtain df for the reprefentation of DF: 
and by the fame means, we obtain ek, which now 
completes the perfpe6\ive plan of the obje£f . From 
fi^ draw dB-j from f draw/B: ere£l on ^ a per- 
pendicular, which cuts n? B in /.• and from /rule / L, 
Cutting/B in g; which completes the figure. 
M K Shews the fide-elevation of this objeft. 

PLATE 



lECT. II.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 



PLATE XXVIII. 

^Figure 1. Rep re fen ts an inclined plane, one fide 
of which is parallel to the pifture: ere£t on the 
center a perpendicular at pleafure ; and at H, form 
fuch an angle as the plane to be treated is fuppofed 
to make J as at K. Rule a line in that dire6lion 
from H, till it interfeds the perpendicular from C, 
as at I : through I, rule a line parallel to H L, as 
VI i which being the vanifliing line to the plane, 
governs its perfpe6live. To I (its center), rule D 
and E ; to C, the center of that part coincident 
with the ground, rule DC; on a ereft a line, which 
cuts D I in A; from A, a line parallel to H L com- 
pletes the figure : or A may be found by its proper 
diagonal (being a fquare) ruled to V, its vanifliing 
point, as appears by the figure. 

Figure 2 is a fimilar example, and the fquare 
g dfg is found as fquares in general : V I being its 
vanilhing line. 



VOL. III. Edit.l, L PLATE 



TS PN PERSPECTIVE. [l«CT. II. 



PLATE XXIX. 

No. I. Is an application of the foregoing prin- 
ciples to a natural objePi, and reprefents a flight of 
(lairs in perfp.eftive : C is the center of the horizon- 
tal line J O is the angle made by the afcent of the 
(lairs J and gives V for the tranfpofed center, to 
which the inclined lines are ruled. The raeafures 
of the Hairs are fet on the ground line, as at 1 2, and 
3 4. The fliadow of the rail D is found by taking 
A B as a ray, to which all Ihadows that fall on the 
uprights of the (lairs are parallel; thofe which fall on 
the horizontal parts of the Hairs follow their dire£lion 
and vaniQi in C. 



PLATE 



JLECT. II.J ON PERSPECXiVE* *J9 

PLATE XXX, 

INCLINED PLANES ON INCLINED PLANES. 

Figure I , Reprefents a prifm (one of whofe fides 
h perpendicular to the ground) refting on an in- 
clined plane: this figure is an advance on Plate 
XXVIIL C is the center of H L, the horizontal 
line; Z is the original plane, and Y the prifm Hand- 
ing on it. Draw through C, a line perpendicular tdi 
it, as V C O : place the prifm Y at the point of dif- 
tance H, and rule lines equal to the angles it makes, 
to O and to V; through thefe points, O and V, draw- 
lines parallel to H L, which thus become vanifhing 
lines to its upper and under faces. The tipper 
faces of Z and Y being parallel, have the fame va- 
nifliing point (O); The plane B, Figure 1, follows 
exaflly No. 2. Plate XXVIII. take ^ A for the feat 
of A on B; from V drav/ V g, V h, beyond g and h; 
and by the diagonal N^ prolonged beyond gj cutting 
V h in b, we obtain one termination of this face^ 
which is completed by ruling a b parallel to g h. 
Now rule for the other face a O, 6 O, which, cut 
by the diagonal b K, will give erf for the termination 
of the other face ; or, it may be found, by ereding a 
perpendicular from^ to c, and drawing cd. efoa 
the ground line marks the width of A. 

In Figure 2, the plane A is conftru6ted in a fimilar 
manner with B in Figure 1. eg vanilhes in V ; and 
/ denotes the middle of the obje61 : abed is a 
fquare lying oblique to A; whofe fides a b, and ca 
vanifli in K : and a c and b d vanilh in a cot- 
refponding point on the other fide O. 

n 2 PLATE 



so OK PERSPECTIVE, [lECT. XI, 



PLATE XXXI. 

No. I. Is an application of the principles and manage- 
ment of inclined planes to landfcape : in this example, 
we have a flat country, interfered hy a defcent {I b aG) 
and a riling ground {d n K c). For the flat country, H L 
is the horizontal line, and C the center. E B F is the va- 
nifliing line of the defcending plane, (confequently be- 
low the horizon) B its center, L B its inclination. S A is 
the vanilhing line of the afcending plane, (confequently 
above the horizon) A its center, H A its inclination. 
Firft difpofe of the flat country, by drawing I C, GC, 
the houfe M (whofe vanilhing point is D, &c.) Then 
fur the defcending plane, draw I B, G B ; a diagonal from 
G to E gives b for one termination of this plane, which 
is completed by a line [b a) parallel to I G. The pofls 
TJ T, and their fliadows, all vanifli in B. For the afcent, 
take ^c as a ground line, and rule f/ A, c A, cutting I C 
in «, and GC in K. The water is of necelfity horizon- 
tal, and therefore vaniflies in C. 

To find the point k in the water [ao being its furface), 
draw the perpendicular KX', and a C, cutting it in r, 
which is the feat of K on the water ; make r k equal to 
r K, for the refle6lion of K in the water: q is the retie6tioii 
of/?. 

The fliadows arc cafl; by the fun fuppofed to be parallel 
to the picture, in the inclination R; parallel to wliiclj. 
draw //, and parallel to HL draw /; i\ unite \li for tiie 
fliadow of I/: to continue the Oiadow on the water, draw 
e'C, which js cut by the bank at 7m j unite tun, vvliich 
completes the Ihadow ot" I In. 

Nc. II. Is another application of tiieie principles to 
landfcape: C the center, II L the iiorizontal line, DG 
the ground line, D A the height of the riling ground, if 
it was lituated on the ground line ; N B its height at N : 
KI, if produced tp H L, is the diltance. The houfe E 
vaniflies in C. The reft^ is explained in the former figure, 
or is too obvious to need explanation. 



As 



lECT. II.] ON PERSPECTIVE^ 81 

As the whole procefs of pra6tical perfpeftive is 
intimately conne£led with the foregoing lift of plates, 
it is proper to requeft the particular attention of the 
ftudent to them; efpecially, as he is afTured, that 
they contain nothing fuperfluous, or that may be 
difpenfed with, but are inferted with defign, that 
he may eafily carry in his memory the rules they ex- 
emplify. It is neceflary to be expiicit on this fub- 
je61:, becaufe it is very uncommon to treat this fci- 
ence fo concifely in regard to the number of plates ; 
but there is much reafon to imagine that multiplied 
examples, and too numerous plates, have frequently 
prevented that attention from being beftowed on it, 
(becaufe feemingly attended w^ith ditficulty) which 
the fcience deferves : whereas, in fa£!, its principal 
rules are by no means either difficult or complex ; 
and the trouble connected with any part of it arifes 
rather from the nature of certain obje6ls to which it 
is applied, and from the inventions of ornamental 
decorations, whofe compofition is intricate. Now 
as the members of any part of a building are but 
divifions or portions of a certain extent, it is clear, 
that, if we are able to reprefent that extent, and to 
divide it into fuch portions, we are alfo able to treat 
whatever thofe portions may contain: and thus the 
ufe of perfpe6\ive appears moft evidently in thofe ar- 
ticles, whofe juft reprefentation is naturally difficult, 
and without this affiftance impoffible. 

It will be extremely eafy for the fludent to mul- 
tiply examples fimilar to thofe here offered him; and 
indeed it is advifeable that he fliould vary and di- 

verfify 



82 ON PERSPECTIVE. "[lECT. II. 

verfify them at his pleafure ; whether by giving va- 
rious direftions to his original lines, or by drawing 
on the right hand, what is here given to the left, or 
by any other change which fancy may fuggeft. 

It is alfo proper to remark, that the conftru£tion of 
horizontal pictures is precifely the fame as that of 
vertical pi6lures, which is eafily experimented by 
looking up to the ceiling ; in which cafe, the center 
beam or ray from the eye equally regulates every 
other line: the fame if a perfon from a high para- 
pet looks down to the ground j the wall of the houfe 
which fupports the parapet, anfwers to the fituation 
of a horizontal plane, and the ground is to him ver- 
tical. But as it is hardly to be fuppofed that our 
readers fliould undertake fuch fubje£ls, the prefent 
bint is thought fufficient without examples. 

Perfpe6live has by fome perfons been applied to 
reprefent as receding what really approaches, and to 
brine: forward what retires : but at the fame time 
that this is allowed to be curious, it is equally con- 
lidered as ufelefs, and merely is the effe£l of irregu- 
lar furfaces forming one pi6lure. 

It is amazing to fee the errors committed by ar- 
tifts (not otherwife without merit) in their reprefen- 
tations of fundry obje6ts, and even frequently of 
fpaces and diflances: whereas, if they would infert 
on their defigns merely three or four of the principal 
dire^ing lines, they could not poffibly commit fuch 
miftakes. Even in compofitions of figures, it is ad- 
vifeable to make ufe of a height correfpondent to 
that of a figure, and to graduate the fame towards the 
4 horizontal 



tECT. II.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 83 

horizontal line, as a directory for figures, &c. re- 
moved from the front of the picture. The fame fcale 
would ferve to proportion other obje£ls, fuch as 
houfes, &c. fince it would then be fcarcely poflible 
to reprefent dwellings fo fmall as to be uninhabit- 
able, or their doors fo ftreight as to deny a paflagej 
as on the other hand, it would prevent their di- 
menfions from fuiting giants rather than men. 

With regard to planes inclined to the picture, 
and to the horizon, it may be obferved, that it is 
not always neceflary to delineate them by the pro- 
cefs here given; but if the fituation of the extremes 
of that portion of the plane which is wanted, can 
be determined by means of any points already ob- 
tained, they may be reprefented very eafily : as 
for inftance, the roof of a houfe, if the part where 
it joins to the front wall be fuppofed, or given, 
and the fame at the ridge of the roof, it is evident, 
that thefe points united by a line, give the direftion 
of the roof; and as the ridge is ufually parallel to 
the front wall, it equally dire£ls the roof in every 
part. The fame remark applies to landfcape : it is 
not always neceffary to draw the inclination of a 
hill, &c. geometrically : by a little praftice, the eye 
will quickly difcover the true bearings of furfaces to 
each other, and will accordingly treat them with 
fufficient accuracy, after having been taught by 
corre£t principles. 



LECTURE 



Si OK PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. III. 



LECTURE III. 

IF the principles, which in the preceding Lec- 
tures have been honoured with your atten- 
tion. Ladies and Gentlemen, have been (o 
clearly ftated as their importance deferves, I may 
juftly flatter myfelf, that the remainder of our fubje£t 
will be eafily difcuffed, and fully underftood ; for, 
when we have once acquired accurate ideas of ob- 
je61:s as feen in perfpe6tive, and know how to re- 
prefent them juftly, and on genuine principles, we 
(hall need very little exertion of genius, or of ftudy, 
to comprehend aright, the natural effefts of their 
Shadows, which, at this opportunity, are the fub- 
je£ls to be inveftigated. 

Shadows, are privations, or abfences, of light ; 
caufed by the interpofition of bodies fufficiently 
denfe to prevent the paffage of luminous rays ; and, 
though it cannot, with exa6t propriety, be aiferted, 
that ihadows are the offspring of light, yet it mull: 
be granted, that, without light, there could be no 
{hadow. 

Darknefs was anterior to light, and feems more 
intimately connected with this lower world ; iince 
fo foon as the great difpenfer, and caufe, of light, 
withdraws his beams, obfcurity returns, and con- 
tinues, till the activity of the folar rays again difpels 
the gloom. 

But, 



LECT. III.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 85 

But, though " light is pleafant, and it be a 
cheerful thing to behold the fun," yet is too much 
of this invaluable blefiing not only ufelefs, but inju- 
rious : fo that, befide the wonderful provifion made 
in our vifual organs for excluding redundance, our 
fenfe of light is alfo not a little refreflicd by reviving 
fliade; efpecialty if for a length of time it has 
been expofed to the a6tion of intenfe light. 

If fliadow be merely an interruption of luminous 
rays, we may, without reluctance, beftovv a few 
minutes attention on fome of the properties of 
light, fmce perhaps by enquiring into thefe, we 
may more eafily comprehend their contraries. The 
rapidity of light is fo vehement, that it is juftly 
confidered as to us inilantaneous, fo that dire6tly as 
a body is expofed to it, or removed from it, the 
efFeft is vifible : but, thofe laws whereby the 
courfe of light, or of luminous rays, is determined, 
more nearly concern the fubjeft of our attention. 
For, if, inftead of conliantly keeping a dire6t line, 
its courfe was oblique, or fpiral, or volutory in any 
manner, we fliould be to feek for different principles 
whereby to afcertain, and to explain, its progrefs : 
but, as by the Almighty fat, ^A^hich faid " Lie pit 
be, and light was," it takes invariably the neareft 
courfe from point to point, we acquire, by a fimple 
experiment, a perfccl knowledge of the principles 
which determine its direftion. 

Whoever -will interpofe an opaque body be- 
tween the origin, and fource, of light, natural^ or 
artificial, and any proper fubftance expofed to its 
jays, will eafily perceive their illuminations are pre- 

voL. 111. Edit. 7. M' eluded 



8f> ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. III. 

eluded from the object furthefl: off, by their ftriking 
againft that which is neareft; and alfo, that a direft 
line, from any part of the fpace wherefrom light is 
fufpended, to the luminary, will pafs through a cor- 
refponding part of that object which fufpends the 
light. For inftance, when I hold my hand between 
the candle and the wainfcot ; it prevents the rays of 
light from paffing further, and, confequently occa- 
lions a blank of light on the wainfcot ; which blank 
is directly (Irait from the candle. And, fo very minute 
and correfpondent are the rays of light, to the form 
of whatever impedes their progrefs, that they affume 
exa£lly its figure and outline, and defcrlbe a figure 
perfe6tly fimilar, on the neareft fuperficies which 
may receive it. 

Confidered as related to Perfpe6tive, light divides 
into two kinds: each of which claims a proper at- 
tention: First, the natural light; the folar, or 
lunar light, whofe origin being immenfely diftant 
from us, and beyond all proportion, with rerpe61 to 
objects illuminated by it, is ufually (and with pro- 
priety) confidered as infinife : its rays, therefore, 
are not divergent, but parallel^ and alike ; and this, 
not only during the radiance of noon, but equally 
parallel are the beams of " grateful evening mild." 

Taking thei; ideas from circumflances of artificial 
light which are familiar to them, fome have thought 
that, the fun may enlighten us from below, as does 
a candle when placed on the ground, though our 
difiance from it be confiderable: and, certain artifis, 
not fufficiently attentive, have enlightened their 
figures under the eye-brows, chin, ScC. in evening 

pieces : 



LECr. III.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 87 

pieces : but, that it ought not to be (o, is demon- 
ftrable ; for, fince the horizon, which is the height 
of the eye (how high foever that eye be fituated), 
is likewife the boundary of the folar rays ; it is evi- 
dent that boundary can be only parallel to the eye. 
And it may further beobferved, that, were the hori- 
zon fufficiently defined, all the figure below the eye 
would be in demi-tint : this effed we fee occafion- 
ally in high mountains; on various elevations of 
clouds ; and to this much of the variety of their 
tints muft be referred. 

It fcarcely needs remark, that the altitude of the 
fun in the heavens, according to the time of the 
day, and according likewife to the feafon of the year, 
produces variations of (hadow : for in the morning, 
as in the evening, the (hadow occafioned by the 
fun's place is infinite; whereas, at noon, thefhadow 
defcribes a certain angle with every perpendicular 
objed. In the fame manner Spring and Summer 
differ ; for the fun's place in the ecliptic is perpe- 
tually changing. What is in this refpeQ true of 
the fun, applies with equal propriety to the moon; 
which fometimes rifes near the horizon, and fpeedily 
difappears below it, fometimes purfues a track, 
whofe arch feems near the zenith. 

Nor ought I here to omit obferving, that the va- 
rious fituations of countries, make a difference which 
deferves notice ; for the fun being the origin of 
light, and its elevation being unequal, in unequal 
latitudes, thefe variations muft needs occafion a di- 
yerfity offhadow, as well as of general effeft. 

M 2 Qeiiarp 



88 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. III. 

Gerard de Lair esse relates an incident, 
which confirms the propriety of this obfervation : 
" Being employed by a gentleman, who had been a 
governor in India, to paint a fcene in that country, 
I made (fays he) a fketch of it, in his prefence, 
"which fatisfied him ; and having painted the pic- 
ture, was de fired to fee it hung up : after the gen- 
tleman had viewed it, he whifpered to me, — * It is 
very well done ; but 1 forgot to tell you one thing 
of great moment; you can alter it in half an hour's 
time.' To be fliort — I had taken the fun (oo lozv, 
and had alfo made him fall into the p'wce Jidewai/Sy 
which occafioned long ground fliades ; whereas, 
he fliould have been nearly vertical ; as in that 
country he generally appears." The artift could 
not but acknowledge the fault ; though it was by 
no means to be re£tified fo eafily as his employer 
fuppofed, fmce every light, and every fliadow, 
throughout the compofition was erroneous : and to 
reftify one, or even many, had been to little pur- 
pofe, without re6iifying the whole. 

Your recolledion, Ladies and Gentlemen, 
will furnilh you with other particulars to which 
thefe hints may be adapted, fmce they are of very 
general application. I ihall mention one circum- 
ftance, which, not having ftudied from nature, I 
confefs my incompetence to determine ; and that 
is, the difference (if any) of fliadow, or of light, in 
the two hemifpheres, and, whether the fouthern 
and northern, are afike in this refpeft ; whether 
they offer the fame (liadows, of the fame kinds, and 

of 



?.ECT. III.] ON PERSPECTIVE 89 

of the fame appearance ; or, whether there be any 
fenfible, or permanent, difference : and moreover, 
what is the general appearance and effeft of the 
fliadows caufed by a vertical fun, which I fuppofe, is 
fometimes rather curious. Time has been, according 
to Herodotus, when thofe who, having paffed the 
line, afiferted that the fun was at their backs as they 
proceeded fouth, were confidered as lying travellers; 
neverthelefs, that fa6t is now acknowledged ; and 
is the ftrongefl: argument for the truth, and the ac- 
tual performance, of the voyage of which Hero- 
dotus profeffed to doubt. The fame caufe may 
perhaps produce other differences allied to our 
fubjedt : but not inclining to undertake a voyage to 
the line, or to either pole, merely to inveffigate the 
fubje<St of lights, though I think many amuling pe- 
culiarities mufl occur to the furprize perhaps of the 
inflru6ted obferver, I reft content with a knowledge 
of the lights procurable in old England, and proceed 
to offer a few hints on the effect of artificial 
LUMINARIES ; which is the second kind of light 
to be confidered. 

The immenfe diftance of the fun, or of the moon, 
renders the rays they emit parallel ; but, as artificial 
lights, a torch, or a candle, have not, cannot have, 
equal dillance, the rays they emit are eafily traced to 
one point, around which they fpread. Thus, al- 
though it be impoffible, by changing the diflance of 
a figure illuminated by the fun, to fliew any varia- 
tion of lights, and fliades, in fuch a figure, yet 
merely the alteration of diftance produces very re- 
markable diverCty in the fame figure, feen by arti- 
ficial 



.00 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. HI. 

ficial light ; for, hereby the fiiadows are rendered 
ihorter, or longer, and the lights become brighter, 
or weaker. Moreover, the extent of fliadow pro- 
je6ied from an obje61-, by means of artificial light, 
bears no proportion to the lize of the objeft itfelf, 
but may be made to exceed it by very much ; as, 
when I approach my hand to the wainfcot, in pro- 
portion as it advances toward the feat of the 
fliadow, the fliadow correfponds to its natural di- 
menfions ; but, when, withdrawing my hand from 
the feat of the fliadow, I advance it toward the 
light, it intercepts a much greater body of rays 
emitted by the luminary, and, confequently, its 
fhadow occupies a fpace proportionably greater on 
the wainfcot ; and this fliadow may be increafed till 
half the room is deprived of light. You fee, like- 
wife, that by placing it above the candle, its fliadow 
appears on the ceiling ; an effeft which we very 
well know it is impofllble fliould attend the 
rays of the natural luminaries; and you fee too, 
that the light alzvays prcferves its direft line; fo 
that let me move my hand on either iide of the lu- 
minary, and to any fituation within reach of the 
rays, the place of the fliadow correfponds per- 
fe£ily to the immediate flation of the candle. 

The infinite variety of fituations, wherein torches^ 
lamps, &,c. may be placed, produces a correfpon- 
dent variety of efre6is ; and precludes any deter- 
minate remarks on any fpecific inflance of effeSi ; 
fince, what obfcrvations might be very jufl, when 
applied to one inflance, might be utterly inappli- 
cable, perhaps falfe, to another. .Indeed, we have 

no 



LEGT III.] ON PERSPECTIVE. *M 

no need to wifli for better principles on this fubjeft 
than we pofTefs, as our rules are fo general, and fo 
fimple, that they readily apply to all cafes, in which 
art is Jikcly to require aQiltance. 

The firft principle requifite toward treating ilia- 
dowsin perfpe6live, is, to find ih^feat of the lumi- 
nary ; then the fituation of the planes around it, on 
which its light falls, and laftly, the relation of the 
obje£ls enlightened to thofe planes. 

I venture to differ from general opinion, and 
method, in placing firft the principles of artificial 
jight ; becaufe, I conceive, that the expreilion, and 
the nature of the feat of a lamp, or of a candle, 
confidered as a luminous body, is more eafily un- 
derftood, than they?(7if of the fun; and efpecially, 
as I wifh to appeal to nature in all cafes, and as 
this may, with the utmoft eafe, be reduced to the 
tell of experiment ; which is more than can be faid 
concerning- natural luminaries, thouoh bv fair infe- 
rence we juftify our principles refpecting them. 

This table is an horizontal plane, on which the 
candleftick ftands ; you comprehend without diffi- 
culty, that, perpendicularly under the flame, is the 
feat of the light on that plane : this is too clear to 
need enlargement. With equal evidence it appears, 
that Xhtfeat of the light on the ceiling, is, immedi- 
ately perpendicularly above the flame ; to prove 
which, we have only to fufpend a <ma]l ball at the 
end of a line, and, bv placing i" over the'cand'e, 
the fhadow of the ball on the ceiling demonlliates 
the truth of this principle. By fimilar methods is 

the 



93 ON PERSPfiCtlVE. [LECT. III. 

the feat of light found on any other plane, it being 
always that fpot, which is indicated by a ftraight 
line drawn from the center of light, to the moft 
dire£t,and proximate, part of the plane ; — as on the 
{idt of this room, the feat of the light is, in that part 
nearefr to the luminary, and thereby moft expofed 
to its immediate, and vigorous rays. 

I perfuade myfelf, this fyftem is too evident to 
require further explanation; and not lefs fimple, 
and facile, is its application ; for, if we defire to 
trace the courfe of a fliadow which falls on any 
plane, we have little more to do, than to confider 
the dire6iion of the obje6i: which calls it ; and by 
finding the fituations of the fliadows of its extremes, 
or terminations, we have almoft in a general view, 
accompliflied our purpofe. 

it an objeft be perpendicular to a plane, the 
courfe of its fliadow will be, a continued diver- 
gence, or receding from thefe at of light on that plane, 
as from a center ; and the length of this fliadow 
will be determined, by lines from the luminary 
through tts extremes ; interfe6ling the courfe of 
the fliadow. If an objeft be oblique to a plane, 
rays drawn from the luminary through each ex- 
treme, or termination, give the feat of its fliadow 
on the plane; if it be parallel to a plane, the flia- 
dow follows the courfe of its parallel, and vaniflies 
in its vanifliing point. It is true,- that as well ob- 
je6ls, as planes, may be fo tortured into awkward 
fliapes, and forms, as to occafion much trouble and 
em»barrafl'mcnt to find the images of their fliadows ; 
^> }et. 



t.ECT. 111.} (ya PERSPECTIVE. 93 

yet, if we can afcertain their reprefentations on any 
one pbnt, the others become manageable. 

Ariihv.ial lights Teem more dire6tly under our 
conrroul, and rci^ulation ; I have, therefore, intro- 
duced them betore the ohfervations I intend to offer 
on the principles of fhadovvs occaiioned by the fur, 
or the moon -, but the rules to be adopted, in treat- 
ing thefe, are founded on a fimilar mode of reafon- 
ing, though on a fcale differing in extent. 

It ii-, indeed, impoffible to ^fix a natural, and 
real, feat for the fun, on any part of our fmall furvey 
of this our globe, becaufe, very diftant from us, is 
that fpot where he is vertical ; yet, as we know his 
]ight has an apparent feat on our horizon, (confidered 
«s a plane) and that fhadows of objects always bear 
a certain reference to the feat of light, as lately 
explained, and always recede in ftraight lines from 
it ; by finding a point correfpondent to the ap- 
parent fit nation of the luminary, and another, the 
neareft that can be drawn from that fituation to our 
horizon, for the feat of its light (which is evidently 
an application of the procedure jufl: fuggefted) we 
poffefs principles which apply to this occafion alfo. 

The center of the pidure, the horizontal and ver- 
tical lines, have already engaged our attention, and 
we fiiall receive from them much affiftance on the 
prefent occafion. Let us imagine the vertical plane 
to be ereft before us ; and then — the fun to be on 
one fide of it,= — to the left firii, in the prefent in- 
ftance. It is evident, that, according to his obli- 
qiiity from that plane, his rays will be more or lefs 

VOL, III. Edit. 7 N declined, 



94 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. III. 

declined, with refpecl to ourfclves, and to our fita- 
ation. If we keep our ftation, while the fun, by 
degrees, approaches toward the dire6lion of that 
plane, the declination of his rays gradually leflTens, 
till at length they become union with it, and we 
receive thfm full in the face. M^hen he fjn in his 
pron;refs is advanced to the right of the plane fup- 
pofed, the declination of his rays is proportionably 
augmented, till at length they llioot dire6tly acrofs 
the center beam of the eye : that eye looking the 
fame way as at firrt. 

During his progrefs hitherto, we have been able 
to afcertain, on the piHurc, a point correfpondent 
to the f^tuation of the luminary, which may be de- 
nominced h\?, place on xhe picture; and, which is, 
where a line drawn from the eye to that elevation 
at which he appears would cut the pi(in^ure. This 
place on the pi^fure muft, of necclTity, be above tht 
'horizontal line, as we may be faid, in efFedl, to fee 
the luminary, only very obliquely ; but fo foon as 
he pafles behind qs, his place on the picture falls 
below xht horizontal li.ie, and the greater his eleva- 
tion, the lower is that place ; till as he fets behind 
the horizon, it becomes union with the horizontal 
line. In this courfe (if we incline to the fuppofi- 
tion of a lengthened day) he may twice be in union 
with the vertical plane ; once, right before t!ie fpec- 
tatori afterwards, right behind him. And if the 
fun was, during the whole nuctherneron, (or day of 
twenty- four hours) above the horizon, as he is in the 
polar regions, in fummer, he might alfo be twice in 

the 



iECT. III.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 95 

the plane of the piQure, and twice in every angular 
horizontal obliquity. 

A /7ro/7y5— methinks it muft fomewhat embar- 
rafs natives oi thefe medium latitudes to dillinguifli 
day from night, fhould they viijt the j)olar regi- 
ons, during their fummer, when, as wt- have faid, 
the fun is conflantly above their horizon. The idea 
is curious, of a night-piece by fun-l'mht : or, can 
it juflly be denominated night while the fun fliines? 
If it may, it palliates the ignorance of that painter, 
who unable to reprefent a moon light, illuminated 
by fun-fhine, even his midnight fubje61s. 

But there is no need, that we, perfonallv, fhould 
fpend a whole day in watching the courfe of the 
fun ; fmce all fixed objefls may be faid to do it for 
us. The windows of our houfes, for ip.fTai-^ce, may 
confirrh thefe remarks ; fuppofe thev have a fout^ 
afpeft, then, in the morning, the fun fhines along 
the front of the houfe, but not into the windows; 
at noon, he fhines diredrt into the rooms, throuph the 
windows, and the fhadows of the window frames, 
which, until noon, had fallen to the right, gradually 
fall to the left : till at length they become one with 
the wall of the houfe, as the fun advances to his 
evening dation. 

Or, turtherto illuftra^e the principle, let us advert 
to a horizontal fun-dial in an open };lace ; and this 
the rather, becaufe, the lines winch mark the 
hours, form at oi:ce a regifter of the progrcfs of the 
Tight, and fliadow,,and of thofe effects which they 
have produced during the day, i, e. they deter- 

N 2 mine 



96 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. 112. 

mine, and note, the obliquity of the fun. Let us 
fuppofe the gnomon of fuch a fun-dial to be a large 
tranfparent pi8ure. The gnomon is alwavs fet 
north and foutb. Now, at noon, when the fun is 
fouth, he is in the plane of the gnomon, or picture, 
confequently, he has no obliquity, or angular decli- 
nation, but, his elevation in the heavens is the only 
thing necefiary to be confidcred ; whereas, at one 
o*clock, two o'clock, three o'clock, &c. it appears, 
by the hour lines, that his obliquity is confider" 
able, and increafing ; let him keep on his courfe 
till fix o'clock ; and here, let him wait a few mi- 
nutes, till we have made our remarks. 

it' we go behind this large tranfparent pi61ure, 
we dial! fee the body of the fun through the pit^ure; 
to determine his place, we have only to mark the 
fpot he appears to occupy ; and, to find the feat 
«f this luminary, we muft let fall a line from this 
fpot to the h(^r!Zon ; that part of the horizon where 
this line falls, will be the point toward which 
all fliadows on the horizontal plane, though falling 
from their ol)jetfs (ozcards us, yet will feem to 
tend: this then is their vanifliing point :— the va- 
niihing point, on the horizon, ot all lliadows falling 
on the horizontal plane. 

Let us exemplify this, in relation to the perfon 
whom we have fuppofcd to be the fpettator: as the 
rays of the fun pafs through our tranf[)arcnt picture, 
they naturally fail on the perfon who is behind it, 
(!;,d he, by interc''])tiiig them, calls a fliadow on the 
ground behind him; now, if from the ['lace where 

the 



tier. III.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 97 

the fliadow of his head falls (he Handing upright) a 
line be drawn through the feat of his feet, this line 
will ftrike the horizon, precifely in the point where 
the feat of the fun, /. e. of the fun's light, is on the 
horizon before him ; and fuch a perfon will fee the 
whole of the fliadows falling from obje6ts, and the 
whole of the darkened portion of thofe objefts. 

Reverfe now the fuppofition ; the fpe6^ator re- 
mains no longer behind the large tranfparent picture, 
but, he comes before it, and turning his back to the 
fun, he infpe£ls that pifture in front which lately 
he looked through from behind. It is true, he will 
fee another horizon, and another fet of obje6ls ; but 
though he has changed his fcene, he has not chang- 
ed the principles which regulate the fliadows of all 
objeds which compofe it. For we are to recollect 
that the fliadow from his head, which formerly fell 
behind him, now falls before him : and this effe£t 
being the reverfe of what was the cafe formerly, let 
us fo far reverfe our procedure, as to draw our line 
from the feat of his feet through the fhadow of 
his head ; and we fliall find, that by candying up 
this line to the horizon, we obtain a point, toward 
which, all the fliadows falling on the horizontal 
plane fecm to tend. Thefe fliadows no longer fall 
ioicard the fpe6lator, but fi^om him; he no longer 
fees the whole of the fhadow, but he fees the wholly 
enlightened portion of the objeds. 

That attention to the natural effeft of light which 
I have mentioned, requires both more time and 
more patience than is abfolutely necelTary to acquire 

a fufficient 



98 ON PERSPECTIVZ. [lECT. ZTU 

a fufficienf infrght into the nature of the angular de* 
clination of the folar rays ; fince a fpe£tator, by 
turning himfc(/ roundy may produce all thofe de- 
clinations in a mi-nute. If the fun be at firft behind 
him, he may gradually turn himfelf, till the fun fhine 
full in his face; and may continue turning, till the 
fun be again behind him. In this revolution, he 
"uill obferve every obliquitv of light and (hadow 
accompanying the moving plane of his own circu- 
lating pi61ure y and he will perceive the ftability of 
the principles, though his fituation be conftantly 
varying. Thus it appears, that thefe principles alfo, 
may be brought to the teft of experiment, when- 
ever the fun (bines, and therefore, to that teft we 
(hall refer them. But, though we may thus eafily 
experiment the different angular obliquities of the 
fun to the pi6ture, yet, for the different elevations' 
of the fun in the heavens, which form a neceffary 
part of our principles and attention, — for thefe we 
mufi wait the courfe of the fun's diurnal progrefs. 

We have now illullrated three chief fituations ; 
that of the luminary, that of the fpe8ator, and that of 
the pi£f ure ; JirJI, when the fun is in the plane of the 
picture ; Jecoudlij, when he is dire6l before the fpec- 
tator; thirdly y when he is dire6t behind the fpec- 
tator : after this, very little trouble can attend the 
reprefentation of any degree of obliquity at which 
the fun may happen to be ; for, if we place him at 
the oliliquity of one o'clock, two o'clock, or three 
o'clock, ('advcrtln<; to the fun-dial) we readily dif- 
covcr by the courfe of the hour lines, at what point 
3 we 



LECT. III.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 99 

we are to look for him in one cafe r or in the other, 
we can ealily draw a line from the fhadow of our 
head, through the feat of our feet, and where 
that line cuts the large tranfparent pi(?lure, there 
ere£ling a line to ftrike the horizon, we can procure 
the feat of the fun with certainty. 

Having thus pretty fully, and I hope clearly, 
treated of (hadows caft on the horizontal plane : I 
iliall only obferve as to fliadows caft on the vertical 
plane, that they follow the fame rules, and are of 
the fame conftrudion. I think it not necelfary, 
-here, to occupy our attention with them, as well, 
becaufe they refemble thofe of the horizontal plane, 
as becaufe, by far the greater number of fliadows 
are caft by objefts (ituated on the horizontal plane ; 
as trees, houfes, men, animals, &c. for the fame 
reafons, (hadows caft on inclined planes are difmifted 
with merely being mentioned. 

It muft be owned, great truth is produced in a 
pi6ture by juft reprefentations of ftiadows ; and in- 
deed, without this, the lights, which always are 
the moft attractive part of a compofttion, lofe half 
of their power ; yet, too great an attention to the 
accuracy of fliadows, h apt to produce a hardnefj;, 
by precluding that blending, that gentle, and de- 
licate regulation of ftiades, which, if it in fome 
fmall degree facrifice truth to grace, yet amply com- 
penfates that facrifice, by cftablifliing a general har- 
mony throughout the performance. 

The method of pra8ice is eafily deducible from 
ihc principles we have ftated. It is neceftary to 

have 



iOO ON PERSPECTIVE, [lECT. Ill 

have III a peifpedive reprefentation of fhadows, 
four chief points : Firjt^ the center, which is the 
foul of the fyftem j fccondly^ the place of the fun 
according to his elevation, and to his obliquity j 
lliirdUjy a point on the horizontal line, perpendi- 
cularly correfpondent to, (z. e. under or over) the 
place of the fun, (which is a kind of tranfpofition of 
that place to the horizontal line, ferving for fliadows 
on the horizontal plane) ; fourthly^ a point on the 
vertical line, perpendicularly lateral to the place of 
the fun; which alfo is a kind of tranfpofition of the 
fun's place to the vertical line, ferving for fliadows 
on the vertical plane. 

In difcourfing on artificial light, we obferved, 
that, it was in our power to afcertain the real feat 
of the light, and to place objects beyond that feat, 
from us; confequently, to enlighten them different- 
ly, merely by moving them flraight forwards or 
backwards : but, this we cannot do in the prefent 
inftance ; on the contrary, all we can accomplifli is, 
to approximate as near to that feat as our horizon 
will permit, and thereby to tend tozcard the fun's 
apparent feat. If we inquire after his real feat, 
it is, perhaps, in the morning in the South Sea; 
at noon, in Africa ; in the evening in South Ame- 
rica; /. e. on that line wherever it be, where he is 
meridional; therefore evidently beyond our imme- 
diate application. But we remark, that the fun's 
rays being at an infinite diftancc, are parallel, and 
therefore as to fenlc, his apparent feat anfwcrs every 
purpofe of his real feat. And thus it appears, that 

alth')Ui.^hj 



tECT. III.] Oif PERSPECTIVE. 101 

"although, by his magnitude, and his immenfe dif- 
tance, the fun obliges us to vary the application of 
our principles ; yet the principles themfelves con- 
tinue to be of permanent, and of manifcft, utility. 

By this time, I flatter myfelf, the nature, and the 
cfFe£ts, of fliadows, as related to perfpe6live, have 
been fufficiently illuftrated: it is not the bufinefs of 
the Lecture to apply them to fpecific obje6ls> 
for that I refer to the examples; and fliall now 
offer merely a few thoughts on reflected appear- 
ances. 

Had I been inclined to introduce here an eulo- 
gium on the fcience of perfpeftive, I certainly might 
have congratulated myfelf on a happy opportunity, 
lince the principles we have been difculTing are 
clofcly allied to the fublime ; but I rather wi(h to 
imprefs on the minds of my auditory, an abiding 
conviftion of their utility. It is true, they are 
too much negle61:ed and aifregarded ; but I will be 
bold to fay, no perfon pofTelTing natural tafle, or 
liberality, after once acquiring them, would be in- 
duced to forget them. What iliall we fay, then, to 
the inattentive indolence of many artifts, who omit 
to cultivate an acquaintance with them, or if ac- 
quainted with them do not fcruple to violate their 
precepts ? 

In the article of reflections (whofe principles 
are extremely fimple) this violation occurs very fre- 
quently; and, though nothing is eafier, than to 
fay, that the inferior appearance, or the counter-part, 
^fanobje6f, muft not exceed in dimenfions, &:c. 

VOL. III. Edit.l. o the 



102 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. III. 

the obje£l itfelf, yet this eafy precept is too often 
ncglefted, or forgot. 

When refle£lions of any kind prefent themfelves, 
confider, that the angle of incidence and the angle 
of refle6tion arc equal. As we (land before a houfe, 
for inftance, we fee the reflection of the fun, ap- 
pearing like another fun, in its windows; what 
then is the true place of the heavenly luminary ? 
It is juft fo many degrees of a circle diftant from 
the dire£t afpe6l of the window (whether ten, 
twenty, or thirty degrees), as our own fituation. 
Or, bring the principle to the teft of the mirror : al- 
though to fee ourfelves we Hand right before it and 
clofe to it, yet, when (landing at a little diftance 
from it, if we wifli to fee a particular obje6l ob- 
liquely fituated on the further fide of a room, we 
mud inevitably retire from the direct front of the 
glafs, to a ftation which correfponds with the angle 
made by that obje£t with the glafs ; and this effe£l 
is the fame, whether the fpeClator change his ftation, 
or the direction of the glafs be varied. 

With regard to houfes, &c. feen in water, we 
continue, in idea at leaft, the plane of that water, 
whereon we aflume a line on which they are fup^- 
pofed to ftand ; or we trace by lines from the ob- 
jeds, what their feats would be ; then we let fall 
perpendiculars from the principal parts of the build- 
ings, which preferve their original forms, tend to 
their original points, keep their original angles made 
with each other, and differ merely by being m- 
verted: the procedure has little difficulty. The ef- 
5 feas 



LECT. III.] ON PERSPECTIVE, 103 

fe£ls of refle61iou differ according to the nature of 
the reflecting medium j whether it be tranquil and 
clear, or agitated and difcoloured ; according alfo, 
to the variations of force in the objeCts, and to the 
fituation of the enlightening luminary ; but reflec- 
tions, in general, fliould always be /tept doion^ or 
abated in their ftrength, rather than permitted to 
difpute with their originals. 

Thefe principles, and their confequences, I fub- 
mit. La dies and Gentlemen, to your confidera- 
tion, and conclude my difcourfe, by reminding you, 
that they are of daily utility, and may be brought 
to the teft: of daily experiment. 



o Q OBSETR* 



104 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. III. 

OBSERVAT IONS 

On the Plates belonging to Lecture III. 

PLATE XXXIL 

No. L Is intended to explain the nature of the 
feat of the li^ht, and its efFe£ls as the ravs di- 
vorgo. The infpe6iion of the figure fhews, that its 
principles are very iimple ; for having drawn, from 
the feat of the light, lines through the bottoms of 
the fticks 1, 2, 3, i, 5, 6 ; and, from the point of 
light, lines through their tops, the interfeftions 
of thefe lines give the lengths of the fliadows ; fhort 
to fome, and long to others, according to their 
heights, and to their appearances in perfpe£live. 

The Ihadovvs of No. 5 and 6, being interrupted 
by the furface A, inftead of continuing their courfe,. 
receive a dire61ion correfponding to that furface. 

No. II. Is the fame principle applied to folid 
bodies. The feat of the light being fixed, on the 
ground plane, from that point, as from acenter, rule 
lines through the principal feats on this plane of 
the bodies whofe Hiadow^s are required, as a, h, c, 
and from the luminous point rule lines touching the 
other extremes of thefe bodies, as d,e,f,gy the in- 
ti^rfe6lions of thefe lines give the extent of the flia- 
dows, as 1,'2, 3. 

No. III. Shews the fame principle, but the face 
of the obje61: is enlightened, being beyond the lu- 
minary from the fpe6tator. 

No. IV. Needs no explanation. 

X PLATE. 



iECT. III.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 105 

PLATE XXXIir. 

Exhibits the feat of lig^t on various planes : the candle 
is fuppofe-d to iland on the middle of the table, in which 
cafe, its feat on the floor, is found by the interfeclion of 
diagonals drawn from the legs of t!ie table. A horizontal 
liue, drawn through this center to the oppofite fides of 
the room, gives the points (as F) at which perpendiculars 
being raifed will pafs through the feats of light on the 
vertical plane : a horizontal line from the point of light 
determines the exa6l feat, as at A and B. On the fame 
principle, a line uniting the extremes of A and B on the 
ceiling, interfft^'d by a line drawn from the luminary, 
as at D, gives the feat of light on the ceiling. To fmd 
the feat of light on tlie further fide of the room, rule from 
the feat of light on the floor, to C (the center of the pic- 
ture) ; where this line touches the bottom of the wall, 
cre6l a perpendicular, on which the required point is de- 
termined, by a line from the luminary to C, as at E : the 
fame may be obtained by a flinilar procefs from D on the 
ceiling. 

The fhadows of all objects perpendicular to a plane, 
diverge from the feat of light on that plane. Thus the 
lliadows of 1 and 2 on the ceiling', are found by the in- 
terfe6lions of lines drawn from the feat of light, D, through 
their bottoms, with others from the luminary itfeif, 
througli their tops. 

The fame is precifely the effect of 3, whofe ihadow di- 
verges from B. 

The object 4 follows the fame rules; and the fliadaws 
of its (ides, as c, recede from the feat of light on the 
floor. The fliadow of .5 falls at 6, and, not being per- 
pendicular but parallel to the plane B, tlie Ihadow of this 
lide of the object 4 vaniibes in C ; as do the fliadows on 
the ground oif the fides a and b of the table. 

One inftance of the utility of fliadows appears in 5 ; 
which may, or may not, be united to 4, by its fituation 
in the figure; but which is determined by the Ihadow at 
6 to be affixed to it : while 7, which feems to be equally 
annexed to 4 (if we confider its outline only), by its 
ihadow is proved to be diltmjt from it. 



ELATE 



i06 ON PERSPECTIVK. [lECT. HI. 

PLATE XXXIV. 

To n prcfent Ihadows caiifcd by the Sun", we muft f\x 
a point in the picture for the luminary, and, as its feat, 
a point on the plane on which the Jhadow is to be caft : 
this is found, by letting fall a perpendicular from the 
liiminarx^ ; whole fitnation with refpecl to the pi6lure we 
Ihatl quickly attend to. 

TSo. I. R is a ray from the fun ; J the fpeftator's eye ;, 
of which J is the feaf. The rays of the fun being pa- 
rallel, a line parallel to R paffing- throngh I gives T for 
the place oi' the fun in the picture; a line from the feat 
of the fiin, through t]ie feat of the eye (J) cuts the piSlure 
perpendicularly under T: produce this- perpendicular, 
till it cuts the horizontal line, as at II, for the vanilhing 
point of lliadows on the ground. 

C is the center of the picture: if the Am was perpen- 
dicular to the plane of the picture, and of confequence 
directly at the hack of the fpectntor I J, the line H T 
would become union with the yertical line C G ; as, if the 
fun were on this jide the fpe6tator, the line H T would be 
removed toward L. \i the fun Avas nearer iha horizouy 
the point T would be proportionally elevated toward H ; 
or, if the fun was in llie zenitit, it would be immediately 
over C G, and would occafion no lateral Ihadow. 

When the Ipechitor is hchccen the fun and the pi6lure, 
as in this example, the feat of the fun on the picture, as 
at T, is belo'x' the horizontal line ; but when the picture 
is between the fpeclator and the fun, the fun's feat on the 
picture, is of neceilitv aboye that line, as has been ex- 
plained in the LrcruRE. 

No. ff. In this example, the picture is between the fun 
and tint ipectator : and the plane on which it is propofed 
to find the (hadow is vertical (as E.) 

I is the ipectator's eve ; J its feat ; R the inclination of 
the luminous rays ; S the feat of the luminary on the 
ground ; and S K the declination of the rays. F is an 
objedt perpendicular to E. 

To jjrepare this pi6ture, firft draw J // parallel to S K, 
and at // erect a perpendicular ; then draw IT parallel to 
R, cutting the hue from h in T, which is the fun's place 
in the j)itture. C is the center of the pi6lure, through 
which produce a perpendicular, as D//, which is the va- 
liifliing line of the perpendicular plane E, Draw T I> 
perpendicular to T-^, then is 1) the feat of the fun on the 
vertical line, and the yaniihing point of lliadows on that 
plane ; as 11 is, on the horizontal line. 

i»i.ATfc; 



I.ECT. III.] ON PERSPECTIVE, 107 



PLATE XXXV. 

No. I. Figure 1. To the foregoing example, this 
adds the method of finding the fhadow on a plane 
mclined to the horizon, but perpendicular to the 
pi6ture. 

The firft: part of the procefs, is exactly as the fore- 
going: I the fpe(5tator's Eye ; J its feat : R the lu- 
minary ; S its feat ; S T the declination of the rays : 
procure the point M as before, by drawing from J to 
the pitlure aline ftrikingit beneath v, from whence 
ereft a perpendicular, and from I draw (parallel to 
the original ray) I r: ereft at C a vertical line, which, 
cut by one perpendicular to it from r, gives D for the 
feat of the fun on the vertical plane. 

Now to procure the vaniihing points for the fha- 
dows on the inclined plane Y; through C drav/ C V, 
(correfponding to the direftion of the plane Y) cut 
by r D at V ; which is the vanifhing point for the 
Ihadows of horizontal objefts on Y. The line VC 
continued till it interfeds 7' H, (as at v) gives r as 
the vaniOiing point for fliadows of vertical objefts 
onY. 

Of the fliadows in this example, pq tend to H; 
being on the horizontal plane : / , fhadow of g, 
tends to D 5 being on the vertical plane: o, Ibadow 
of e, tends to V ; being horizontal on the inclined 
plane : and z being vertical, its fhadow y on that 
plane tends to v. 

Figure 2. Shews the fyftematic lines, freed from 
objects and fhadows, and in their proper bearings 
as feen direct. The references are the fame. 

Suppofmg the foregoing figures fufficient to ex- 
plain the general principles of fhadows projected 
either by a lamp, or by the fun, we proceed to no- 
tice the application of thefe principles to illuminated 
objefts. 

PLATE 



108 OS PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. llU 

PLATE XXXVI. 

■WHEN THE SUN IS IN THE PLANE OF THE 
PICTURE. 

Figure 1 . H L is the horizontal line. The fha- 
dow falls to the right hand. The rays of the fun 
being parallel, we muft in the firlt place determine 
its elevation in the heavens, and affume the direc- 
tion of its rays accordingly, as R. The fun being ia 
the plane of the pi6ture, the fliadows it occafions are 
parallel to the ground line, fo that we need only 
procure their lengths by interfc6\ions parallel to 
thofe rays. 

From the bottom of the houfe, A, rule a line pa- 
rallel to the ground line ; to cut this line for the 
fhadow of B, rule from B a line parallel to the radial 
line, as R B, which gives a for the (hadovv of B. 

The fide B, F, vanifliing in T, fo does its fliadovV 
af: or, the point/ is equally found by ruling a ho- 
rizontal line from the feat of F, cut by a radial 
parallel to R. 

Figure 2. The fame procefss the Hiadow falling 
to the left hand. Rule A 1, horizontally, which is 
cut by the radial B 1 ; let fall D to C ; rule C 2 ho- 
rizontal, which is cut by the radial D2. Rule 
E3, horizontal, which is cut by the radial F 3: unite 
J, 2, 3, to complete the fhadow of B, D, F. 3, ruled 
to L, gives the Hiadow of the further fide of the 
roof of the houfe. 

PLATE 



tECT. III.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 109 

PLATE XXXVII. 

THE SUN BEHIND THE PTCTURE. 

No. I. In this fubjecl, the place of the fun in the 
picture, is beyond the limits of the picture ; but its 
half elevation is marked, as S. The place of the 
fun being determined, alfo its feat on the horizontal 
line as H, rule S B, SC, SD, SE; let fall D to rf; 
then from H rule for the interfe6tions H A, which 
gives 1 for the fhadow of B ; He, which gives 2 
for the fhadow of C; Hrf, which gives 3 for the 
fhadow of D, He which gives 4 for the ihadow of E. 
Unite 2, 3, 4, to complete the fliadow of C, D, E. 

THE SUN BEFORE THE PICTURE. 

No. II. Firft determine the feat of the fun, as 
S, and its feat on the horizontal line, as H, rule to 
S, from B, C, and D, let fall C to c , interfeft thefe 
lines by others to H, as A H, which gives J for the 
fhadow of Bj cH which gives 2 for the fhadow 
ofC, &c. 

Such are the general principles of fhadows occa- 
fioned by the fun, in which we are to obferve, lirfl:, 
the parallelifni of the fun's rays ; fecondly, the place 
of the fun, and the direction of thofe rays ; thirdly, 
the feat of the fun on the horizontal line, for the 
fhadows of obje6ts on the horizontal plane, or on 
the vertical line, for the fhadows of objefts on the 
vertical plane j and fo of any other plane, as al- 
ready fliewn. We fhall add a (qw examples of 
other objects, 

VOL. in. £(//V.7, B PLATE 



110 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. III. 

PLATE XXXVllI. 

IN THESE EXAMPLES, THE SUN IS BEHIND THE PICTURE. 

H L is the horizontal line; C the center: fup- 
poCcd to be out of the picture immediately above L 
(as may be found by tracing the radial lines) is the 
place of the fun, confequently L is its tranfpofed 
feat on the horizontal plane. 

No, 1. Is a cube with one face parallel to the pic- 
ture: ] is the fliadow of A, 'J of B, 3 of D ; as 
B D vanillies in C, fo does its (liadow 2 3, being 
parallel to it. 

No. II. Explains the fljadow of a crofs: thefeat bd 
of the crofs-beam (B D) is found by letting fall per- 
pendiculars which are cut by a line from C, through 
the bottom of the crofs. Radials art; ruled from the 
principal parts, as A, B, D; and interfered by 
lines from L, through the feats of thofe parts, i..> 
1, 2, 3, &c. 

No. III. Shews the palTage of the fliadow over a 
bloc]^ b''"o «*^<^J"ig ^ the block vanidies in C; the line 
defcribing its further Tide at bottom, being drawn, 
the fliadow of the crofs is traced to it, it mounts 
diredlly up that tide, and appears again on the fur- 
face, where it recovers its former courfe. The 
jliadow of the end of the block, at 4, 5, is found by 
the fame method as in No. I. 

No. IV. Is a cube, whofe fliadow is found by 
ruling, from the place of the luminary, lines through 
its upper corners, as ah\ which are interfetted by 
lines from its lower corners drawn to L, as 1 L, 
2 L: this lliadow, 1. 2. being parallel to the fide 
a /?, tends to the vaniiliing point of that fide. 

No. V. To find the Ihadow of a cylinder, fele£t 
three or four points in its upper furtace, abed; 
find their feats at the lower furface, by letting fall 
perpendiculars ; rule radial lines, from the upper 
furface : and from L, the feat of the luminary, rule 
through tlie correfponding points below, till they 
interfe6t the former, as 12 3 4: unite thefe care- 
fully to complete the figure. 

PLATE 



LECT. III.] ON PERSPECTIVE. Ill 

PLATE XXXIX. 

IN THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES THE SUN IS BEFORE THE 
PICTURE. 

H is the fiat of the fun on the Horizontal Line. 

A is the vanifliing point of the rays of light ; or, 
the fuppofed place of the fun on the horizontal plane. 

No. I. Is a cube ere6\ ; the lines from its upper 
corners are ruled to A, as a 6 ; thofe from its bot- 
tom corners, are ruled to H, as c<ie: their inter- 
fe6lions determine the Ihadow, 12 3. 

No. II. Is treated on the principles of No. II. in 
Plate XXXVIII. by finding the feat of its ex- 
tremesj and ruling radials to A, as a and c i inter- 
fered from H as h and d. 

No. III. Is an appfication of the fame method 
to a flight of ftepsi whofe bottom corner, c, is ruled 
to H, and the top of the fame ftep to A, interre6\ing 
at 1. The feat of the fecond ftep is found at /;, 
which, ruled to H, is cut at 2 ; the feat of the third 
ftep is at a, which is cut at 3 i 4 is the intellection 
of the feat of the/z/r^//er end of the fame face, which 
is found by letting fall a perpendicular from g^ inter- 
fefted by « C ; in the fame manner, is found, the feat 
of t ; which likewife ruled to H, completes the 
fliadow on the ground. The (liadovvs of the higher 
fteps on the lower are alfo ruled to H. 

The fliadow of the flick A is ruled to H, till it 
meets the ftep, whofe perpendicular courfe it then 
follows; on the horizontal part of the ftep, it is 
again ruled to H ; the ftiadow of its head^ ruled to 
A, completes th^ whole. 

p 2 i;>LATE 



112 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. III. 

PLATE XL. 

IN THIS EXAMPLE THE SUN IS BEFORE THE PICTURE. 

R, fuppofed place of the fun j H, its tranfpofed 
feat on the horizontal line. 

The (hadow of the cylinder is ruled to H. 

The (hadow of the board on the top of the cylin- 
der, and which falls on the cylinder, is found, by 
fele£ting as many points as are thought neceffary be- 
tween A B and B C ; as at B ; rule B H ; where 
it touches the top of the cylinder, let fall a perpen- 
dicular ; where that is interfered by a line from B 
to R is the fliadow of B, as at L. The fame for 
any other point, between A and B. 

The fliadow of the board on the ground is found 
by procuring its feat, as of ABC, at a 6 c; which 
are ruled to H. The fliadow of the wire e on the 
cylinder is found by ruling its feat d to H, ftriking 
the bottom of the cylinder in D ; then ere£^ing a 
perpendicular, which is cut by c R at E, for the 
place of the fliadow of e: the fame method procures 
G and F. 

This figure exemplifies the method of treating co- 
lumns, ScC. in architecture, the fliadows of fquare 
mouldings, &c. when they fall on columns, &g. 



PLATE 



tECT. III.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 113 

PLATE XLI. 

No. I. Shews how to find the fliadow of a globe 
enlightened by the fun : here we may obferve, that 
the fliadow of a globe is fimilar to that of a circle 
directly oppofed to the luminary ; by finding there- 
fore the fhadows of certain points in its circumfe- 
rence fo oppofed, we obtain the whole. R is a ray 
of light ; V the center of the picture ; 1 2 3 4 is a 
fuppofed fe6tion, defcribing the enlightened part: 
procure the feat of this circle on the ground, by per- 
pendiculars, as 1 «, 2 /», 3 Cj 4<i; rule lines parallel 
to R, from 12 5 4 for the fhadow; and lines parallel 
to the ground plane from abed: their interfe£tions 
afcertain the feats of the (liadows of thofe points 
(12 3 4) in the original feftionj which, being 
joined, condu6t the reft of the fhadow of the circum- 
ference. 

No. II. Is a globe enlightened by a lamp : now 
as the luminary is fo near to the objeft, a much lefs 
portion than half the circumference is alone capable 
of receiving light. We have to fuppofe a fimilar 
feftion as before j 123 4; find their feats on the 
ground, by perpendiculars, as abcdx rule L 1, 
L 2, L 8, L 4 ; and from the feat of the light S, rule 
' interfe^tions, as L I in e; L2 in/; L3 in ^; L4 
in h. Thefe points, united, indicate the fhadow of 
the Original fe6i!on. Y is the center of the piflure. 



PLATE 



H4 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. III. 

PLATE XLII. 

No. I. In this example we have a wall (G), and, 
at right angles with it, another wal?, with a door- 
way in it. H L is the horizontal line; the fun is 
fuppofed in the plane of the pifciurej the inclination 
of its rays, to be R H. 

Firft, from the bottom of the proje6ling wall, 
rule a horizontal line to the bottom of the wall G; 
where ere£t a perpendicular, which, cut by a line 
from a parallel to R H, gives u for the fhadow of or, 
which unite to /, Or, rule from R, t u, which 
equally gives the fliadow of the top /a at u: c 
and d are exactly limilar. 

The flied D is fhewn more diftin£lly in the fol- 
lowing Number ; the fyftematic lines are the fame. 

No. II. The wall B (to which the fide of the 
fhed IDS is parallel) vanifhes in L. 

The wall A vaniflies in H, the roof of the fhed 
in G ; T reprefents the inclination of the rays of 
light. 

Firft, draw Azo, where ere£l ws: then draw R 
through ty ftriking the top of the {lied in w ; there 
remains now only that part of the fliadow which falls 
on the roof. Rule G through u ; interfeft it by a line 
from a, parallel to the rays of light, as at r, which 
unite to s. Or this part of the fliadow may be found, 
by ruling Qih, cutting A // in A; then rule hsr. 



PLATE 



LECT. III.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 115 

PLATE XLTII. 

Reprefents a houfe ftanding oblique to the pi^lure. 
H L the horizontal line. The fun is in the plane of 
the pifture ; and his rays paraileJ to V H. 

One fide of the houfe (G) vaniflies in H, the other 
in L: thefe are too obvious to need explanation. The 
roof is fuppofed pyramidal, and a pyramid fet on a 
cube is the fame as if (landing on a plane. Vkle 
No, II. Plate XXI. Rule therefore diac^onals to find 
its center, which is at A, where ere6t its axis A O, 
and to O draw its fides. 

To reprefent the garret window; ere6t a c, and 
fuppofe b the height of the hole made in the roof; 
draw a O, then 5 H c H interfering it : fuppofing 
7n and x the extent of the window, erecl: there per- 
pendiculars; thefe, cut by a line from b to L, give 
the fquare, and, united at c, the roof of the window. 

To find the fliadows caft on the roof of the houfe ; 
lay a ruler from T through A ftriking the horizontal 
line in X; eretl XD perpendicular to H L, and 
continue TO, till it meets that line above D; rule 
D L, which is the vanifhing line of the plane TOR, 
interfering the plane of rays in Y, which is a va- 
nifhing point for the fliadows on the roof. The 
ihadow of the window is found, by ruling,/ Y, which 
interfe6ted by a parallel to Y H, troni the neareft 
corner of the top of the window- fquare, gives i for 
its termination. On the fame principle the lliadow 
of B is found : rule Y P R, which interfected by a 
line parallel to V H from B, gives R for the Ihadow 
of B. The fhadow of the root on the chimney is 
found, by continuing to the top of the roof the line 
where the chimney and the roof meet, as at t'y 
through f. draw Y tWy or a line througn w, parallel 
to V H, will ftrike the chimney in n. The figure 
]VI fliews the chimney more didinflly ; and that its 
conflrudion refembles that of the wmdow. 

3 . PLATE 



116 ON PERSPECTIVE. [LECT. HI. 

PLATE XLIV. 

Explains as well tlie manner of finding the fliadows of 
thefe obje6ls, as their refle6lions. C is the center ; H the 
vanifhing point of the rays of light, i. e. tlie feat of the 
fun on the horizontal line. 

This figure is a hollow cylinder cut open, its hither end 
parallel to the picture. To reprefcnt its fliadow on the 
ground ; find the feat of 3, as at 5, rule this to H, then rule 
3 to M, their interfe6tion gives the fliadow. The fliadows 
of the other corners are found by the fame method. For 
the fliadow of the edge on the internal hollow, rule a r, 
b s, c t, parallel to CM; then rule r st to C, and a h c 
to M ; their interfeftions defcribe the courfe of the flia- 
dow. The objeft being parallel to the pi6lure, is per- 
feftly circular, as alfo its reflc6lion W. 

The rcfic5tion of K is found merely by inverfing its 
height as at k, the plane of the water being fuppofed to 
be continued. > 

The fliadow of K on the cylinder, is found thus : from 
any point in the outer circumference of the tube, as 2, 
draw 2 C ; then find the feat of 2 on the ground, as at g, 
rule this to C ; and where it is croflcd by the fliadow of K 
ruled to H, as at /", erect a perpendicular, interfecling 
2 C at y, for one fide of tiie fliadow : as u gives ?/ for the 
other fide of the fliadow. To continue the courfe of {!ie 
fliadow, take another point on the circumference as r, 
find its feat, rule it to C, erett a line, &.c. as before, and 
it gives S by its interfeclion with r C. 

The fliadow on the infide of the cylinder is found as 
before ; parallel to C M rule a t, and b I ; rule ^ C, / C, 
which interfe/^od by rt M. /; M, give//?;/ for the courfe 
of the fliadow. To find the fliadow of this obie6l on the 
(ground ; procure the feat of J as at // ; rule h TI, and 1 M ; 
their interfeclion is hint fufticicnt. ""I'lie refie6lion is 

incrciv a counter pint. 

PLATE 



# 



lECT. III.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 117 

PLATE XLV. 

No. I. Shews the reflexion of houfes, &c. in 
water, whofe principles are extremely fimple. Pro- 
cure the feat of the objects, and invert their perpen- 
diculars as much below that feat, as they appear 
above it : ruling their perfpe6live lines to the fame 
points as the originals. Thus, a is the refledion 
and counterpart of A ; but there being no refleft- 
ing medium between B and the fpe£tator, B can- 
not appear inverted, d Is the refleftion of D ; 2 
of 1, 4 of 3, and f of E: thefe all vanifh in C. F 
vaniflies in I, and fo does its reflexion/ of courfe. 



PLATE XLVI. 



No. L Shews that however the rays from ob- 
je£ts, Scc. and their reflections may appear to differ, 
yet in reality they are exa6tly fimilar : fo that, the 
fuppofed refle6tive depth in the water of C D, and 
EF, is equal in appearance to the diftance be- 
tween thofe ob]e6ts and the radial interfettions. 

No. II. If the little figure ftanding on the hill, 
be fuppofed to wifli to reprefent the refleflions, 
&c. of thefe houfes, he would be able to (hew but a 
fmall part of them, as in fa6t he fees little befide the 
houfe E and the tower D. 

No. III. Exhibits a variety of obje£ls whofe re- 
flections explain themfelves, being exaCt counter- 
parts. Of the (ticks D, and E, th& firft being up- 
right, its reflection is upright alfo : but E being 
aflant, that part of it which is under the water, be- 
comes refracted by the denfer medium, and fee:;:3 
as it were broken, fo that though it is a good rule 
to confider water as a mirror, yet by its tranfparency 
and refractive powers, it fometimes differs in its 
effea. 

VOL. III. Edit, 7. Q LECTURE 



118 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. IV. 



LECTURE IV. 



Ladies and Gentlemen, 

T X JHILE on every fubje6l there may be va- 
' ^ rious, and often, contradictory, opinions, 
according to the afpecfls under which it is feen by 
different perfons, we need not wonder, that on the 
principles of art, and on their application, the fen- 
timents of profelTors fliould fometimes difagree. 
This happens occafionally on the lludy of perfpec- 
tive : while fome mailers defpife that ejt which 
does not (alone) fufficicntly afcertain the natural 
appearances of objefts, others think geometrical 
fcriipulofity is indifpenfible, in every reprefentation 
of nature. Shall I fay that, both thefe extremes are 
to be avoided ? or, fliall I rather commend them 
both, and advife to unite them ? Geometry alone 
never yet compofed a happy, and pleafing, picture ; 
and if the effulions of pra(^^ice, unregulated by juft 
theory, may have attained to veracity and corre6t- 
nefs, I have not been fo fortunate as to meet with 
fuch inftances. 

But, of late, fmcefcience is afliionable, and every 
offered affifiance is generally received with avidity, 
it is much more common for artifts to depend on. 
the d'-igmas of fcience, than on the obfcrvation of 

Nature ; 



LECT. IV.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 119 

Nature j infomuchj that geometry has been confi- 
dered as the fovereign, rather than as the ailiftant 
of Perrpe6tive; and becaufe, hereby we procure 
fuch and fuch reprefentations of obje61s, it has been 
aflerted (fomewhat prematurely, as 1 fuppofe) that 
thefe reprefentations are conclufively accurate, and 
demonftrative. 

I flatter myfelf, not any of my auditors whom I 
have had the honour to addrefs in the preceding 
Le£lures, will entertain a thought, that I am infen- 
fible to the advantages arifing from mathematical 
affiftance, or that I undervalue our obligations to 
that fcience, which alone has afforded, or can af- 
ford, certainty and exaftnefs to the ftudy of per- 
fpeftivej and yet I cannot entirely acquiefce in at- 
tributing abfolute puiflance to geometrical induc- 
tions : nor do I think fuch afiertions would have 
been made by writers on perfpeftive, if they had 
extended their views, and confidered Nature as 
the fupreme authority throughout the imitative 
arts. 

But, fince I avow this fentiment, I requeft your 
indulgence, while I notice fome differences between 
the effe6f s of geometry and thofe of perfpeftive ; or, 
rather, I fliall offer remarks on a few particulars, 
in which the rules of both fciences are inadequate 
to the requifitions of art. 

To define perfpeftive, perhaps I fliould call it 
a regulated imitation of Nature; in which imi- 
tation it receives much affiflance from geometry: 
but, in fome inftances, geometry is quickly fuper- 
Q 2 feded, 



J20 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. IV, 

feded, and even perfpe6live fails in its application. 
We have already obfcrved, that fome articles are too 
minute, or too trivial, to engage the attention of 
perrpe6live : others depend not on mathematical 
rules, but on the operations of Nature at large; a 
reference to which, v^ill not, I hope, be deemed im- 
pertinent. Should we requeft a geometrician to 
determine the boundaries of an extenfive profpefV, 
he w^ould not only find the undertaking more dif- 
ficult than he expe£^ed, but even abfolutely impof- 
fible to ftri£t geometry : for, by geometry he would 
prove^ that the height of a man being fuppofed five 
feet, the extent of his vifion fliould be confined by 
the horizon at about the diftance of three miles, on 
level ground : whereas, we really infpect much 
farther ; becaufe the fame principle which occafions 
twilight (I mean the refra£iion of the air) elevates 
apparently the diftances of the profpe6l before us, 
and renders them vifible to us, although in fa6t they 
;^re geometrically below our horizon : much after the 
fame manner as a'piece of money at the bottom of a 
fit veflel is rendered vifible by the acceffion of water. 
It is not feldom this fact can be demonftrated 
on land, but at fea it is of perpetual utility ; for, 
hereby the tops of hills and lands are raifcd up in 
the air, fo as to be difcoverable feveral leagues 
further oflf, than otherwife they would be : and 
this refra61ive power in the air, is more fenfible ac- 
cording to the greater diftance wherein it has to a6t, 
and the quality of thofe vapours it contains : to the 
very great benefit of fome parts of our globe. 

"Very 



XECT. IV.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 121 

** Very far North," fays Captain James, who win? 
tered up Hudfon's Bay, " we found the fun to rife 
twenty minutes before it fhould, and in the evening, 
to remain about twenty minutes longer than it 
fliould" — and this refra£tion fhortens the polar 
winter a whole month ; as well as prolongs every 
day the cheerful fight of the fun in thofe parts. 

The refraftive power of the air, has alfo a re* 
markable effect on the form of the fun, and the 
moon, when near the horizon, changing them, from 
the circular form of which we know they fhould be, 
to an oval form, and, efpecially, raifing (and there- 
by flattening) the under limb, fo much, that the ge- 
neral form of the obje£t is of no true mathematical 
figure : this I myfelf have obferved in a confiderabla 
degree : though I fuppofe no degree which ever 
occurs in this country, can equal what often occurs 
in the north. 

But not to one region only is the principle of 
aerial refra£tion confined, for, in the warmer climates 
of the eaft it -has its influence. Dr. Shaw, fpeak- 
ing of Arabia round about Mount Sinai, informs 
us, that when thefe defarts are fandy, and level, 
the horizon is as fit for aftronomical obfervations as 
at fea, which at a diilance thefe parts nearly re- 
femble. It was, there furprifing, to obferve in what 
an extraordinary manner every obje6t appeared to 
be magnified ; tor a Ihrub feemed as big as a tree, 
and a flock of Achbobbas (birds the fize of a Capon) 
might be miftaken for a caravan of camels. " This," 
3 fays 



122 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. IV. 

fays he, " feems to advance about a quarter of a 
^' mile before us." 

My auditory will readily perceive, that in order 
to render this obfervation fenfible, and evident, I 
have fele^ed inftances more remarkable than our 
temperate climate affords; but, fuffer me alfo to 
add, that we are not without effedls arifing from 
this caufe, which are more confiderable in fummer, 
than in winter, and perhaps at the morning, than at 
the evening, twilight. 

To apply this to the fubje6l of our immediate 
attention, I think I may venture to fay, not only 
that we fee remoter objects than, geometrically, we 
ought to fee, but alfo, that obje£ts fituated at fome 
diftance from us, appear larger and more dift:in6l, 
than their geometrical fituation would indicate. 

Moreover, I cannot help thinking, that, in ftruc- 
tures of very great extent, this principle has its 
effect; and, that the remoter parts of fuch ilru61urcs 
are not always fo greatly diminiOied as geometry 
would determine, or, as we fee them reprefented ; 
for, if they were, fuch ranges of buildings as — the 
palace of Perfepolis, or — as fome of the Italian 
aquedu6ts, or — as even fome of our own ftreets, 
would be nearly invifible at their further ends. Nei- 
ther, in my opinion, are the diftnnces always fu 
evanefccnt; for, not only in dimenfions, but in 
effe£l, the rules of geometry are occafionally evaded 
by objects, as it does not ahvays happen, that, their 
force decreafes according to their geometrical dif- 

tances ; 



LECT. IV.] OR PERSPECTIVE. 125, 

tances ; but, by a variety of accidents, arifing from 
the vivacity of the light, or from the "rarity, or the 
denfity, of the circum-ambient ait, they vary confi- 
iiderably from their prefcribed efFe£ts. Nor indeed 
is perfpe6tive itfelf infallible here ; for, if we fup- 
pofe ourfelves to have taken the -moft accurate view 
(of a diftant town for inftance) while the fun has 
been obfcured by clouds, fhould they be fuddenly 
diffipated, and the fan (hine full on that particular 
fpot, it would fcarcely feem the fame place which we 
had been defigning : or, perhaps fome gilded wea- 
thercock, juft moved by a little fliift of wind, may 
gleam irregularity into the keeping of the piece: 
or fome white obje6l may fo far furpafs its neigh- 
bours, as to be extra-diftinguiflied among them. I 
have often noticed houfes at a diftance, perhaps, 
barely fufficient to afcertain them, or their forms, 
when fuddenly, by the parting of clouds, the fun- 
beams have been reflected with great fplendor, even 
from windows which before were imperceptible. 
This often happens in the evening, to houfes built 
on hills, and to other obje<Sts which are highly ele- 
vated : in fa£t, the article of light is among thofe 
leaft fubjeft to rules, and while it is undoubtedly an 
indifpenfible ingredient, it is perhaps the moft de- 
ceptive of any in a compofition. 

Is this an advantage, or a disadvantage ? An 
advantage, very certainly, to thofe who know hgw 
to improve it ; for, as the variety of accidents which 
fudden tranfitions of light occafion, is endlefs, it fur- 

niflies 



124 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. IV. 

nifhes innumerable opportunities for feleftion, and 
for choice, to whoever has fkill to choofe aright. 

You muft often have noticed this : — while the fky 
has been darkened with clouds, fometimes they 
would feparate, and permit a broad paflage for the 
fun-beams ; then, gradually clofing, they have con- 
tra£^ed the illumination to a mere fpan ; and the 
cffeft of this light has been various, according to 
the objefts whereon it has fallen j whether on fields, 
on meadows, on waters, on towns, on gilded turrets, 
or, on bumble thatch : whether on barren wafte, or 
on cultivated land ; on woods, on parks, or on corn 
fields. Which latter obje£ls, be it obferved, have, 
when agitated by the wind, an agreeably graceful 
movement peculiar to themfelves, in the gradual 
bending, and waving, of the golden grain j to which 
effeiSl the light very much contributes. If to the 
idea of clouds, and their intervals, you add that of 
a briik wind, impelling them in rapid fucceffion 
one after another, you may eafily imagine its effect 
on the light, and the perpetual change of illumi- 
nated appearances refulting from this alternation -, 
every obje£t being by turns enlightened, and dark- 
ened; now refplendent, now gloomy; prefently 
emerging from obfcurity into demi-tint; or from 
demi-tint becoming obfcure. 

It is, neverthelefs, very certain, that thefe acci- 
dents, although exceptions to general rules, by no 
means fuperfede their utility : they only prove that 
Nature offers an infinite variety for our amufement, 

our 



LECT. IV.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 125 

our recreation, and our ftudy. Happy the Genius, 
whofe enlightened fkill attains to an agreeable imi- 
tation of them ! Happy the Arti^, whofe works, 
inftead of tedious fimilarity, prefent thofe flriking, 
and energetic, compofitions, which are vifible alone 
to the ingenious, and to the well-informed ! 

This may be a proper place to enquire by what 
principle fome objc61s, or fome parts of an obje6t 
appear to advance, and others to retire. It is, be- 
caufe the light from that part of a furface neareft 
to the eye, has fo much greater force than that from 
the further end of the fame furface : this effeO:, al- 
though dependent on the principles of perfpc6tive, 
is yet very much changed by the obliquity of a 
furface, by the fituation of a luminary, or by the 
nature of an object ; all which caufes vary the de- 
gree, and the force of refle6lion. 

In looking at this mahogany table, the hither part 
of its furface, that adjoining the edge neareft to us, 
feems enlightened ; this light at a very fmall diftance 
indeed, becomes moderated ; a little further off, it 
is yet more decreafed, and, as we advance toward 
the other extremity, it ceafes to be light, and may 
rather be denominated a flight fliade. This effeft 
is very gradual, regular, and conftant, becaufe 
the furface is uniform ; and, confequently, its obli- 
quity or declination from the eye is uniform alfo: 
but, if in any part of the table we place a furface 
fomewhat more elevated in its pofition (as this draw- 
ing-board) the neareft edge of that furface does not 
perfe£lly correfpond in its degree of light with that 

VOL. III. Edit. 7. R part 



126 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. IV. 

part of the table where it is placed, but the light is 
fome degrees brighter, and, as it were, fets off 
afrefh on this new furface from its hither end, gra- 
dually decreafing to its further end ; the waving of 
grain in a corn field, whofe agreeable movement 
we have noticed, depends much on this : the va- 
rious directions of the undulating furface, perpetu- 
ally diftinguilhing themfclves, by breaking the uni- 
formity of the general plane. 

But, if inftead of a flat fuperficies, we obferve- 
this circular filver vafe, tha gradation of tint is much 
more rapid, and from the brighteft light to the 
ftrongefl dark, is but a fmall difiance, in proportion 
to the circumference of the object. The brilliancy 
of poliflied metallic bodies depends entirely on this 
principle ; which, however regular in itfelf, is too 
much diverfified in its obje6ts, to fubmit to the rules 
of perf[)e6tive j fince the forms of objects (which 
greatly contribute to this effe6t, and correfpondently 
vary its power) are infinite. This principle, toge- 
ther with an accurate underftanding, in the article 
of reflexions, is among the higher Studies of Art ; 
and, when happily applied, nothing more decifively 
demonftrates fuperior abilities, or the great Maf- 
ter : for not only veracity, and I may add deception^ 
depend on them, but alfo harmony, and repofe. 

A word, or two, on the Article of Reflection 
in Ihadow, may, here, with propriety, receive our 
attention. 

I know not how better to explain this article, 
than by recollecting the order in which we have 

traced 
i 



LECT. IV.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 127 

traced the retiring fliade: correfpondent thereto, 
obferve, that, the neareft end of any furface which is 
in (hadow, feemsmore deeply fliaded than the further 
end ; the fhadow in receding being vireakened, as it 
were diluiedy by degrees, and becoming lighter, 
and lighter. The very gradual diminution of the 
force of the fliadow prevents this from being con- 
fpicuous in adjacent parts ; but when we com- 
pare the extremes, it appears unqueflionable. The 
refult is, that a greater ftrength of light, accompa- 
nied by a greater ftrength of fliade, brings for- 
ward thofe obje61s to which it is applied ; while a 
correfpondent privation of both, or, mutual ad- 
vances toward each other, produce the appearance 
of recefiion, and diftance. 

The caufe of this is, perhaps, not very difficult 
to aflign ; for, if we confider, that the rays of light 
are perpetually diverging in every poffible direction, 
it follows, that in a more extended fpace, there h 
room and opportunity for the action and the effe£l 
of a much greater number of fuch rays, than there 
can be in a leifer fpace ; therefore, although by its 
nearnefs to our fight, the hither end of a plane fur- 
face appears dark, yet, while the air is illuminated, 
it interpofes fo much of its illumination between 
the diftances of that plane and our fight, as prevents 
the fhadow from arriving at our eye with equal 
ftrength. Thus it appears, that the air moderates, 
and diminifhes, the refplendence of light, and 
that it has the fame effe6t alfo on the obfcurity of 
(hadow, endeavouring, as it were, to impart its 

R 2 own 



328 ON PERSPECTIVE. [tECT. IV, 

own colour to both : and this endeavour it ac- 
compliflies, in a fpace fufficiently extenfive ; as 
appears by the azure colour of diftant mountains, 
and in other particulars. This reafoning is ftrength- 
ened, by remarking, that when the air is deprived 
of light, every objeft, diftance, figure, and form, is 
concealed and difappears. 

The foregoing analyfis may be adapted, not only 
to objects deprived of light, but alfo to fhadovvs 
themfelves ; vv'hich, by increafed diftance from their 
origin, and caufe, become lefs determined, and ]eh 
forcible. When the extremes of a fliadow fall on a 
fuperficies, near to the fhadowing caufe, the outline, 
and the form, of the fliadow is very accurately de- 
fined, and reprefented ; but, when the objed inter- 
cepting the light, is at fome diftance from the fuper- 
ficies whereon the (hadow falls, the extremes are 
confufed, weak, and indeterminate; becaufe the rays 
of light have more power, and are more in number, 
are more refle6ted and refracted, as the interval is 
increafed. 

The article of fhadows is very important ; under 
good management, they contribute greatly to diftin- 
guifh diftances, and to feparate objedts even though 
related in colour: for inftance, if two walls, of equal 
height, one behind the other, have but a little 
fpace between them, they may polTibly feem a con- 
tinuation of each other j but, if the dire6lion of 
the light be in the fame plane as the walls them- 
felves, it will fliine between them, and, by this ef- 
fe£l, part them: or, if the fhadow of one falls upon 

the 



LECT. IV.J ON PERSPECTIVE. 129 

the other, it will equally imply a feparation, and 
diftance, between them. 

When a fliadow is of confiderable extent, the 
obje61s which are immerfed in it, are not enlight- 
ened from the fame quarter as the obje£t calling the 
fhadow, but by refle£tions from the oppofite quarter ; 
fo that, the lights and fliadows are fituated rc- 
verfely. A perfon ftanding under the fliadow of a 
high wall, which ihadow falls to the left, will re- 
ceive a refle61ed light from the left, and he will cafl 
to the right a fliadow on the wall, againft which he 
(lands : always fuppofing no impediment to be in- 
terpofed, but the air to be free. 

Reflexions are very much ccnfufed, and inter- 
mingled, by partaking of luminous rays emitted from 
other bodies; and, efpecially, if the reflecting obje6t 
be near the fliadow, it very flrongly enlightens it : 
as that Lady's white drefs reflects fo clearly on the 
lliadowed flap of the table, as to rvhiten the fliadow. 

Thefe particulars, and many others which are 
allied to them, are by no means proper fubje£ls of 
perfpe61ive regulation ; they njjaff be fludied from 
Nature ; as muft alfo the reflections of colours ; for 
every colour emits rays according to its tint, and 
thefe rays colour (or rather, perhaps, difcolour) 
other objects on which they fall. Thus, when a 
group of ladies ftand together, the white drefs of 
one will receive a tinge from the coloured drefles of 
the others : from a pink, it will become pinkifli ; 
from a green, green ifli, and fo on : while, like a fo- 
ciable neighbour, it returns the compliment, and 

renders 



130 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. IV. 

renders whitifli thofe parts of the coloured dreffes 
which are neareft to it. On the fame principle, when 
the fun fhines on a red carpet, the reflection from 
the carpet will tinge the ceiling with a reddifli hue, 
and the carpet will receive a whitifli tint from the 
ceiling in return. 

It may be worth while, juft to obferve here, that 
we confider the refleftion as equal to half the dire£l 
ray of light, in force, and the re-refle6tion as equal 
to half of the firll: ray ; thus, diminifliing half its 
ftrength continually, it foon becomes too feeble to 
claim our regard. 

It is not very common to confider thefe prin- 
ciples as forming part of perfpe61ive, yet, as they 
feem to me to be very clofely allied to this fciencc, I 
have ventured to introduce them ; and, perhaps, if 
greater attention to the effe^ls and appearances of 
Nature, were more commonly introduced into trea- 
tifes on the fubjeft, the reafonings, and the illuftra- 
tions, to which fuch appearances give occafion, 
might relieve, and entertain, as well as dlre61, and 
inflruft, the Student, to great advantage. 

After having in fome particulars fpeculated, as 
it were, on extenfive, and remote, effe6is, I fliall 
now, requeft attention to what more Immediately 
belongs to ourfelves; for, after we have invefti- 
gated obje6ts of every kind, we neverthelefs, return 
with peculiar complacency to the human figure. 

We have, on former opportunities, noticed the 
proportions, the movements, and the appearances, 
of the figure ^ and the principles we then illuftrated 

and 



LECT. IV.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 132 

and adduced, are iinqueftion|jbly of great utility : 
but, by this time, I may venture to hope, that we 
are prepared to regard them alfo as influenced 
among other caufes by Perfped^ive. An inanimate 
fubje£t, being void of motion, may be meafured to 
the utmoft nicety, and the correfpondence of its 
parts may be determined, minutely ; but in a fub- 
je6i perpetually ibifting its fituation, and varying its 
forms, if we fall ibort of this accuracy we are not to 
be furprized. Not that I am about to undervalue 
the mod corre£t and accurate meafurements to 
which the human figure and its parts have been 
fubje6led, but, merely to notice fome circumftances 
arifing from perfpe6^ive, of whofe eflre6ts it is of 
importance to be apprifed. 

A\^hen I firetch out my arm to its full extent, that 
perfon to whom it happens to be in a ftrait line, 
fees, properly fpeaking, little of the arm ; but, the 
hand might, for aught that appears to him, be united 
immediately to the flioulder. This, is an extreme 
inftance of a principle denomimtedfore/kortenijig. 
The fame may be the fituation of the leg: and, in 
faft, all the members are capable of it from joint to 
joint, in a greater, or a lefs, degree. To compre- 
hend this more fully, we have only to furvey a 
plafter figure ; and we fhall find as we move around 
it, the members aflume an infinite variety ofafpefts. 
Suppofe it, for inftance, to be a figure kneeling, in 
which cafe the leg from the knee to the foot is pa- 
rallel to the ground ; on one fide of this figure we 
fee the whole leg at its full extent, but by walking 
round it a little, the diftance between the knee and 

the 



132 ON PERSPEcnvE. [lect. ly. 

the foot feems, gradually, to lefTen, and lefTen ; till, 
at laft, the further parts are greatly concealed by 
the nearer parts : or, at leall, they appear reced- 
ing, and, as it were, flying off". — This is evidently 
an effect of Perfpe£live ; but this is reducible to 
no laws, whofe application is determinable, fince 
what may apply to one member, or to one attitude 
of a member, may not fuit another member, or an- 
other attitude. 

Forefhortening is, perhaps, of the greateft confe- 
quence, where, only, this flying off, or recefllon, is 
to be reprefented : and fuch inftances are perpe- 
tually occurring ; no attitude can be without them 
in fome of its parts : the principle runs through 
every member of the figure, and, according to the 
dimenfions of a member is more, or lefs, apparent. 
Thus,'^the arm laid on the table, is forefliortened 
(to a fpeQator) from the wrift to the elbow ; the 
Angers are forefliortened in fome refpe6l, or other, 
be the pofltion of the hand what it may. In our 
imitation of this effect, beflde accuracy of outline, 
the application of that retiring (hade we have no- 
ticed, is principally to be depended on: for, by its 
Influence in moderating the brilliancy of the parts 
forefliortened, it feems to increafe the vivacity, and 
the force, of thofe where the light ftrikes ; as, the 
front, principally : or, wherever the parts receive 
another dire61ion, as in the already exhibited cafe of 
the drawing-board ; fo that, it appears, forefliort- 
ning and the retiring fliade are fo clofely allied, that 
where one a£ls as a caufe, the other follows as an 

eflPea. 

As 



tficT. IV.] On perspective. 133 

As extreme inftances of forefliortcning — Per- 
fpe6live has been applied, with very powerful 
efFeft, to figures placed in particular fituations; 
fuch as, high up on the fides of large hails, or 
other great rooms, on ceilings, and on other planes^ 
not vertical to the eye in its ufual exercife. That 
fome of thefe fubje6^s are ornamental, I fhall not 
deny; but, that they are always Well chofen, is 
more than I incline to affert. We have inltances of 
figures reprefented in fuch fituations (as on a nar- 
row proje6lion ; a* the height of an hundred feet or 
more) that the firfl: fentiment they raife in a fpec- 
tator is, that of fear, — for fliould they fall, the fall 
would be fatal. We have inilances alfo of naval 
triumphi^ and, conne£ied with them, of dafliing 
waves, on the coving entablatures of ceilings : furely 
the eye muft be pardoned, if the firft emotion it 
fuffers from fuch reprefentations, is, wonder how 
the fea (hould come there, and how it fliould there 
abide ! To be fure, when an artift has taken the 
trouble to make a fea, whether ftormy or calm, he 
may claim a right of putting his fea where he 
pleafes ; but we may be allowed to wifli, inftead of 
exercifing his right, he had exercifed his judgment; 
then had he pleafed not himfelf only, but alfo judi- 
cious fpe6lators. 

Ceiling pieces are, however, the great inftances of 
perfpe6tiveforeftiortening, 8cc. in figures; and there 
are many examples in which fuch principles are 
very happily applied ; but, this is not the only 
l^cies of art, in which, after a great mafter has 

VOL. III. Edit,!. s originated. 



134 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. TV, 

originated, and applied, a new principle, his imj- 
tators have carried it to excefs. The immenfe cor> 
cave of a cathedral dome, may require a manage- 
ment, and an effect, very different from the ceiling 
of a parlour, or a dining-room : that which is fo 
very diftant from the eye, and which the fpe£lator 
knows to be really, as well as apparently, remote 
from him, may be indulged in Ifome peculiarities, 
and even in fome liberties, of reprefentation : but, 
thefe form no j unification for the introduction, or 
for the unwife treatment, of fubje£ls, whofe real 
diftance from us, is but trifling, and which the eye 
cannot but eftimate at little beyond arm's reach. I 
own, I do not like to fee a croud of heathen deities 
fprawling about — forefliortened into thickneffes of 
every form — and difplaying, what mortals ought not 
to difplay — on the ceiling of the room, where an 
elegant company is at dinner : if we take them for 
real perfonages, they feem ready to drop on the 
table ; if they be mere ornamental reprefentations 
»— would not propriety choofe other ornaments? 
Thefe remarks apply to thofe immenfe compofitions 
which beloj.d fome ceilings, under the idea of mag- 
nificence j without cenfuring cheerful embellifh- 
rnent, fimple fubje6ts, pleafant, agreeable, lively 
reprefentations, fuch as do not imply the gain of a 
broken neck, by reafon of the time fpent in infpe£l- 
ing them, and perhaps, mifpent in comprehending 
them. Let the fubje£ls alfo fuit their ftations : 
■celeftial glory in a church j — but celeftial glory Js 
no fubje6l for (Iridt perfpc6live : neither is an airy, 
,2 cxpanfive^ 



LECT. IV.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 135 

expanfive, variegated, iky, which, with ornamental 
acceflbries, in moderation, may become a palace. 
If figures muft be had, the lighter they are the 
better ; and if perrpe61ive rcprefentation be indif^ 
penfable, let rather dexterity than rigour condu£l 
it. We have commended the effect of retiring 
fhade, but on thefe kinds of fubje^ls, the beft 
effefts refult from retiring light : when, in, or near, 
the center of the compofition, an idea of infinite 
diftance is fuggefted, by artful management, the 
eflfeft is ufually grand, and magnificent, while it is 
alfo cheerful and pleafing. 

To defcend from thefe higher regions of imagina- 
tion, let us now advert to the appearances of ob- 
je£ls much more readily off'ered us by nature, and 
much more commonly fubje£ied to the exercife of 
art. 

We return now, to what we have faid is clofely 
allied to forefhortening, — the retiring fhadow : which 
may elucidate (more, I think, than is ufually fup- 
pofed) the nature o'i finijhing -y finifhing is fimply 
the bellowing on each part, or place, that tone of 
colour, and tint, which is proper to it. Thus, fup- 
pofe the brighteft light to be in the middle of an 
obje£t; a globe, if you pleafe ; around this bright 
Hght the tint is lowered one degree, around that 
tint, it is lowered two degrees, then three degrees, 
and fo on ; retiring from the bright to the obfcure. 
On this principle, a man's head may be finifhed, 
being rotund; not round; but roundifli : and fo 
may moft, if not all, the members of the body; which 

s 2 alfo 



136 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. IV. 

alfo are not round, but roundifh : the various in- 
flexions of the parts, catching indeed, various lights, 
yet not fuperfeding the general principle of the 
whole, or, difturbing the keeping of particular parts. 

Keeping is, I apprehend, neither more nor lefs, 
than, nicely adjufting, and roprefenting, the various 
tones, and tints, proper to each part ; and is readily 
intelligible from what has been juft delivered. 
Strong lights and fhades are proper in front, and 
in the principal ftations, where force is required ; 
and weaker, gradated, and more tender colours in 
fubje£ls meant to retire. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, I have thus offered 
my fentiments on the fubjeft of Perspective, as 
fuccindly as pofTible, and as clearly as I could : I 
hope I may flatter myfelf that I have been well un- 
derftood by my auditory. The importance, the uni- 
verfality, and the conftant recurrence, of thefe prin- 
ciples, have induced me to wifh, that, they were 
generally promulgated, not in the fhackles of tech- 
nical terms, or of abftrufe difquifition, but in eafy 
leffons, and in colloquial language. I have done 
my endeavour, and heartily wnfti the example may 
be prevalent. I am not afraid, that (as is faid among 
the faculty, if the finiplicity of remedies were 
known, their efficacy would be denied) I am not 
afraid, that the facility of the rules 1 have laid 
down, fhould hinder cither their application, or their 
popularity, fince, I think, to fay of principles they 
are correft, and to add to corretinefs, fmiple and 
€^^y, is the higheil panegyric of fcientitic inliru6f ion. 

A panegyric 



IKCT. IV.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 137 

A panegyric on the principles of Perfpe^live 
would be a noble fubje£l for the eloquence of an 
orator 1 he might fhew its wonders in the microiP- 
cope, which renders vifible animalcida thoufands of 
times too ftnall for human Vilijn ; he might con- 
gratulate his hearers on its utility as conne£led with 
our conftant occupations, and our daily exigencies ; 
he might trace its efFe£l in the folar orb, and obferve 
the peculiarity of the planetary (hadows: he might 
demonftrate the conne6tion of perfpe6tive with the 
azure heavens, and calculate thereby the various 
ftations of the ftellar fires; he might amaze his 
hearers with the difiances of the brighteil, and 
aftonifh them at the intervals of the paler: thofe 
but difcernible by the art of man, he might exprefs 
by the days, or the weeks, or the months, of their 

light ; and might then No, let him ftand, rapt 

in reverence to that power and goodnefs, which 
has imparted to humanity fuch intellectual capacity, 
and fuch energetic genius ! 



End of the Lectures on Perspective 



%* To 



1S8 ON PERSPECTIVE. [lECT. IV. 

*^* To thofe of our readers who may not have 
at hand a plafter figure, proper to elucidate the prin- 
ciples of fore/liorteningy we recommend the in- 
fpe£lion of a coach wheel, as a limple inftance in 
point. In looking at the wheel in front, all the 
fpokes feem equal and alike; but in an oblique 
view, they are greatly changed : the uprights pre- 
ferving their dimenfions, while thofe on each fide 
are apparently leffened, in proportion to their 
nearnefs to the horizontal fpokes 3 which are more 
foreJJwrtened than any others. 

f If The peculiarity of the planetary fiiadows is, 
their diminution as they are prolonged ; for the fun 
being very fuperior in fize and extent, to the bodies 
which caft them, the fhadows of fuch bodies (as of 
our earth for inftance) are conftantly converging, 
till, at length, they terminate in a point: fo that 
the rays of the fun are not abfoliUely parallel among 
themfelves, though they be parallel to the purpofea 
of perfpe6livc. 



PLAT^: 



X,BCT. IV.5 ON PERSPECTIVE. 139 

PLATE XLVII. 

REFLECTION OF LIGHT. 

Fig. I. Itis always to be underltood that the angle of Re- 
flexion and the angle of Incidence are equal ; fo that B, A, C, 
Is equal to C, A, D, and vice vcrfa. Wherefore if it be defired 
to know where (he ray B, A, when reflected from the furface 
#, A, g, will ftrike the perpendicular objedl I, K, we ere6t 
from A, the perpendicular A, C, and make A, D, an angle front 
Af C, equal to B, A, which gives D for the point fought. 

Fig. 2. When inflcad of ftrikingan objed filuaied direfi, it 
ilrikes on one fituated obliquely. 

Suppofe the line of obliquity be, e. A, g, which prolong to 
the bottom of the perpendicular object, as at E ; where erecl a 
perpendicular line: ere6t alfo the perpendiculars e,f; A, C ; 
«•, li ; and transfer the heights f, and h, of rtgure I, to this : 
then, if the ray be B, f, A, the refleclion will be A, /', D ; 
being the point of interfection with the line E. D. The re-rc- 
fleftion follows the fame law. 

Fig. 3. Exhibits the fame principles, further applied to fun- 
dry fubjects. B, A, is a ray of light, which falling on this 
fide the (hadow of the board, produces no effect*, becaufe its 
reflection^ A, D, is fpent in air ; but h, a, by its reiiectiou n, d, 
ftriking the corner of the board at d, very much enlightens 
that under furface, which elfa would be altogether in Ihadow : 
and as all following rays advancing toward I, would be reflected 
further on the (hadow, it follows, that the whole cuurfe of this 
edge of the board will be enlightened, by fach reflections. Now 
if the ground A, a, I, be fuppofed green, the light reflected frornt 
it, will render the under part of the board greunilh ;,if it be red, 
the reflection will be reddifh : and fo of any other colour. 

Fig. 4. Butbelide the refleflions which from the ground may 
ftrike upon any object, refle6tions from objects may (e contra) 
ftrike upon the ground. As for inftance ; though no ray of 
light can pafs through the ftone, B, 0, X, (whereby the whola 
ftirface from X to A, is kept in fliadow) yet from B to A, all may 
pafs freely ; and fo from A to D. By the fame rule it will Ibl- 
low, that a ray of light E, D, may pafs by reflection to A, and 
fo to B ; now though fuch a ray would have no ehfedt on any 
fliadowed part, yet a ray to M would be reflected to N, and fo 
to ; of confequence, all the rays falling betvveen D, and M, 
would be reflected on the fpace between A and N ; thereby 
enlightening it very confiderably; while the part from N to 
X remains dark, .being vilited by no rerte6lions. As thefe 
ftones are not parallel but oblique to each other, the fliadow of 
the ftone B, e, I, X, is defcribed by the lines A, ^, c ; (r> that a 
portion of the further end of the fhadow /, c, '2; and 2, u, t, 
will alfo be without reflections, and confequently dark. It is 
true, that in nature, thi> fliadow w(;uld be notliing near fo vi- 
fible a.^ here reprefented ; becaufe a variety of rays of light dif- 
perfed in the atmofphere, or reflected from various parts, would 
confufe it by their mingling among it. It would alio be further 
foftejied by the principles of Keeping. 

PLATE 



140 ON PEKSPECT1V6. [LECT. IV« 

PLATE XLVIII. 

KEEPING. Plate I. 

Keeping confifts in giving to each part tliat tone of 
color, and ftreiigth of iigiit, or fhadow, which is its due : 
its purpofe is, by means of making fome parts feera to 
recede, to make othcre, by comparifon, appear to ad- 
vance. As to tone of color, we relinquifli that here: 
but as to gra^atioii of light and (hadovv, we have 
thought a few exannples might be ufeful. For this pur- 
pofe. 

Fig. I . The upper figure (hews a number of cubes, the 
light coming on one fide; thefe prefer ve their diftance, 
and effeft, by the influence of the air, but they differ in 
appearance from columns : becaufe in the circumference 
of a column no two parts are precifcly at equal diftance- 
froni the eve ; but if we take the neareft point in the 
circumference, all other points are further, or if we take 
•the furtheft, all other points are nearer ; but in fquare 
bodies this is not the fa6l; the wliole front furface be- 
ing dircfitlj oppofed to the eye, and equally diftant from 
it. Hence arifes the flatncfs of its appearance ; and the 
jio-refieclion of its face, so fituatcd. Ncverthelefs, the 
further parts of a face obliquely fituated, are affefiied 
by refic6Vion ; and, if light, are darkened ; if daj-k, are 
liglitened ; bv which they feemto recede from the e3'e. 

Fig. 2. Exhibits tiie fame obje£ls, with the light coming 
c«i them in front : now as we fee objecls, only by meant 
of the light t!icy refle6l to our eye ; we may expeft in 
this fituation of the light tl)at it will be reflecled from 
thefe objefts to us with the greatell vivacity ; becaufe 
mod dirc6l : the light then from thefe fq-uares will bt 
mod fprightly and vivid, but it will alfo obey the fame 
laws, in refpcct to diftance and keeping, as regulatedi 
the figures above. 

PLAT£ 



tECT. IV.] ©N PERSPECTIVig. 14i 

PLATE XLIX. 

KEEPING. Plate ir. 

Reprefents in its upper figure a number of cylinders, 
the light coming from behind them toward the fpeftator j 
on which we remark that the further objefts are lead 
diftinS;, lead ftrongly enlightened, and leaft Itrongly 
(hadowed : whence they communicate the idea of dif- 
tance. The reaibns are evident: (L)They are dimi- 
tiiftied in fize, therefore occupy leall fpace on the retina. 
(2.) The light reflefted from them has a further diftance 
to pafs through to the eye than that reflefted from the 
front obje6ls ; and, if this palfage be through a denfe 
Urtedium, in proportion to fuch denfity, will be the feeble 
€ffe6t produced by the light fp reflected from them. (3.) 
This mufl be referred, not only to the enfeebled powers 
of the light, but alfp to (thofe of the ibadov^', infomuch 
that in the fame propoj-tion as the lights are obfcured, 
the fliades are enlightened, approaching toward the color 
of the air, and in cpnfequence, thefe diftant objefts ap- 
pear unequal in brilliancy and vivacity to thofe which are 
nearer the eye. 

The lower figure exhibits the fame qbje^Vs, with the 
light coming fideways upon them ; whereby they are 
confiderably more enlightened, and a greater breadth is 
obtained ; but they continue to appear either to recede, 
or to advance, on the fame principles as before. Thefe 
figures being round Qbje6bs, their roundnefs produces a 
kind of {hade on their enlightened fides, caufed by the 
obliquity of the rays of light refleSied from them : as on 
their darkened fides, their roundnefs produces a kind qf 
enlightening, which is occafioned by the admixture of 
light refle6ted from around, on thefe parts ; which, de- 
bafing as it were, the ihadow, foftens it into fomewhat of 
lightnefs. 

VOL. III. l^dit. 1. T PLATE 



142 ON PERSPECTI-VE, [lECT. IV. 

PLATE L. 

KEEPING. Plate III. 

Though we laid before, in order to vender more fenHblc 
the ctifl'ci'ence between round and fquarc bodies, that the 
whole lurtace of a fquave oppoled to the eye is omform, 
and flat ; yet this mull not be fo ftridllv taken, as if in 
plane furfaces of coniiderable extent, all parts aftected 
the eye alike. Suppofe the eye O, to furvey the vertical 
plane before it : it will receive a true and perfect image 
only of tirat part which refleSts tlie direft ray O, 1, 
whofe plan is A. B: this line it examines perfeftly (efpe- 
cially in the center 1, lefs in the point 2, lefs ftill in the 
point 3) : but the line O, 5, 4, whole plan is A, 4, being 
obli(pic from the direft ray, lofes force in proportion to 
the cjuantity of its obliquity ; as appears yet more ftron^- 
ly by the line C), 7, 3, Avhofe plan is A, 3 ; for the angle 
made with the dirc6V ray by this line, being very large, it 
can depift on the retina of the eye O, only an imperfeft 
j;limmcring. 

Pig. 2. If theefteft of oblique lines in regard to tlie 
fame plane be fo confiderablc, when that plane is directly 
oppofed to the eye, the effect of planes oblique to the 
eye, and flill more, of oblique lines dcflc6led to the eye 
from oblique planes, muft be very coniiderable indeed. 
To render this more fenliblc, in this figure feveral planes 
are beheld by the eve O : the plane, 1 , is dire6l to it ; 
but the plane above it 2, is oblitpie ; and fo is the hori- 
zontal plane 3,4; and the ceiling 5 ; it will follow— that 
f)f thcfc planes, the plane 1, will make the molt vigOTous 
imprellion on the eye, and indeed, will be the only one 
perfe81y feen by the eye. 

To illulirate this vet further, fuppofc that each ray from 
the eve Ihot a little ball againft thefe planes, and that 
fuch little ball rebounded from them; in luch cafe, the 
ball 1, being lliol direcf, would rebound diicct, and rec- 
tum along- the line 1, (), but the other bulls would re- 
bound according to their angle of incidence : O, 2, O, 3, 
(), 4, 0,5, and would Hy otVitill further from O. If thelc 
VkiMs were fliot with delign to ftrike forcibly, and to da- 
mage the Rone wht^re they ftruck, only the ball O, 1, 
woukl produce its full effect ; the oblitjuity of the others 
df]iriving them of half, or more than half, their power ; 
from whence v\e may eafilv conceive the diminilned ve- 
aftion of thele refpective jjoints on the eye O, which fees 
them only bv the lioht thev delicti to it. 

4 ^ PLATE 



LECT. IV.] ON PERSPECTIVE. 14S 

PLATE LI. 

KEEPING. Pirate IV. 

The upper figure illuftrates the fame principle as the 
former plate, but in relation to round bodies : for fuch a 
body may be conceived of, as formed by a number of 
planes in various dire6lions. In tiiis cafe, the point 1, 
anfwers to a vertical plane, and the ray O, l, will have 
the ftrongeft cfFe6l either from, the eye O, on the point I , 
or, vice ve7i/a, from the point 1, on the eye O: for all 
the other ravs are weakened b}^ their obliquity, O 2, and 
O 3, will be ftronger than O 4: O 5, O 6, 7, will be 
enfeebled indeed, infomuch, that if the back ground to 
thefe points was adjufted to them, in color, &c. the eye 
would not be able to determine the courfe of the outline. 

Fig. 2. Endeavours to realize the principles of Aerial 
Perspective, by fuppofing the eye O, to infpe6l fix fticks 
placed conveniently before it at different difl:ances, and 
feen by it through different media. If the air v/as per- 
feStly clear (which it never is) the difference between 
the firft ilick and the fixth might be inconiiderable ; and 
only referred to its diminution in fize : but if the air was 
vaporated to the denfity of A, the eye O, miglit be able 
to fee the fixth ilick but faintly ; if the air was vaporated 
to the denfity of B, No. 6, might become invifible ; and 
No. 5, only be difcerned. By the fame rule, at the 
denfity C, No. 4, would be the limit of fight ; and fo on, 
till at the denfity e, the itick No. 1, or at moft No. 2, 
would be vifible. 

This fubjed: may alfo be thus explained : an object feen 
through a fmaller quantity of medium (fuppofing now 
the medium to be of uniform denfity) is more diftinQ: than 
another objea feen through a greater quantity of the fame 
medium: thus, if at the diflance O 1, the power of the 
medium to obfcure a flick be as A, at the difiance O 2, it 
increafes to B ; at O 3 to C ; and lb on. So that if thefe 
diflances be fuppofed extenfive, no wonder that at the dif- 
tance 6, the quantity of medium equals in power of ob- 
fcuration the tint E. From this principle arifes the white- 
uefs of the iky next the horizon, the bluenci's of diftaut 
mountains, and the diltant gradations of landfcape. 



END OF THE LECTURES ON PERSPECTIVE. 



PRINCIPLES 



Pr.RSPE C rrV^K. PlATr I .page 1^4 




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PRINCIPLES 



OF 



ARCHITECTURE, 



LECTURE I. 



Ladies and Gentlemen. 

1 F " the proper study of mankind is man," a very 
proper part of that study, is, to trace the efforts 
of human ingenuity, and the progress of human 
genius, and application. These qualities, are no where 
more apparent, than in man's inventions to sup- 
ply the necessities which continually surround him, 
and to secure himself ao-ainfh thofe evils to which 
his present condition exposes him. Time was, in- 
deed, when he dreaded no evil, nor sought secu- 
rity, but safe in his lawful territories, there ruled 
and reigned ; a paradise his palace 1 For the original 
dwelling of man is usually supposed to have been 
beneath the spreading shade, or under the ver- 
dant grove: or, if he sought other retirement, it 
was not in the gloomy cavern, or the melancholy 
cave i neither in antres vast, nor desarts wild ; nis 
bower was 
Vol. III. Edit, 7. B Chofca 



Z ARCHITECTURE. [lECT. I. 

Chosen by the Sovereign Planter, when he framed 
All things to man's delightful use ; the roof 
, Of thickest covert was in woven shade; 
Laurel and Myrtle, and what higher grew 
Of firm and fragrant leaf; on either side 
Acanthus, and each odorous bushy shrub 
Fenced up the verdant wall ; each beauteous flower, 
Iris all hues, Roses, and Jessamine, 
Kear'd high their flourish'd heads between, and wrought 
Mosaic ; underfoot the Violet, 
Crocus, and Hyacinth, with rich inlay 
Broidered the ground, more coloured than with stone 
Of costliest emblem : 

The traces of this " shady lodge" are not oblite- 
rated among his posterity j nor will be, while hdi 
(a tree) bears any resemblance to huts^ or its de- 
rivatives, in several languages spoken among the sons 
of men. 

What might be the abode of Adam after his ex- 
pulsion from bliss, or, what kind of city Cain might 
erect, we know not : possibly, the fortress of his 
security v^as but a composition of mud-walls, and 
reeds ; rather exposing than concealing the trembling 
vagabond. 

I confess, my refleclions lead me to think, that 
the Antediluvians had Httle occasion for the study of 
Architecture to any extent, as a science: for 
we muft not conceive of certain natural things then, 
as we experience them to be now. It is likely, 
the earth was at that time, not only more fertile, 
but also more temperate j that the seasons were less 
rigorous, and the wants of human life less nume- 
rous. The Deluge, which changed considerably the 

face 



LECT. I.] ARCHITECTURE. 3 

face of the earth, most probably changed its tem- 
perature ; and, perhaps, also, -the Deluge was the 
first prolonged rain which had ever fallen; and not 
less astonishing to its beholders, than if it had been 
fire, instead of water. Is it asked, ^ow then 
was the earth refreshed ? By copious dews : — Thofe 
countries at present watered by dews, are not the 
least fertile parts of the earth ; and, certainly, dews 
might afford moisture sufficient to the earth when in 
full vigour, and when the heat of the sun was mo- 
derate. To this hypothesis agrees the extreme length 
of human life ; and, in my opinion, the phenome- 
non of the rainbow; for if there was originally 
no rain, then there were no clouds j if no clouds, 
no rainbow, the offspring of clouds : this pacific 
token originating after the waters of the flood had 
covered the earth with oceans, with vapours arising 
from those oceans, and after the earth w^as sub- 
jc<5led to a frefli system of adions exerted on it. 

It is not my intention to notice the almost infi- 
nite varieties of Architecture which at pre- 
sent obtain among different nations ; it is of small 
consequence to us, on this occasion, to know, that 
the Samoiedes dwell underground, and pass their 
long night of winter without wishing for a window^ 
or, that in certain parts of America the natives 
build their houses up in the trees, to avoid the sweep- 
ing floods: or, that many are the towns in China, 
which are constructed on the watery element, and 
cover the surface of rivers. That ornamental spe- 
cies of Architecture which we have adopted, is 
Kiore interesting to us, and is to be traced much 

B 2 nearer 



4 ARCHITECTURE. [lECT. I 

nearer to our own climate, amid the power and supcr- 
tition of Egypt, the science and the apphcation of 
Greece. 

I am aware, that it has been supposed, divine 
instrudtion imparted architedtural knowledge, and 
that among the favoured nation we are to look 
for its institution, or, ct least, for its advancement, 
and its regularity: but, with all due respeft to 
whatever seems to support this opinion, 1 beg 
leave to engage our thoughts to another, and a 
more probable, system. 

Before science of any kind can make a consider- 
able progress, civilized life must be advanced some 
degrees at least toward perfection; for, not till after 
a community possesses members sufficient for a dis- 
tin6t profession to be assigned to each, is much 
improvement in any profession to be cxpefted. 
Alone, or nearly alone, a man must concenter every 
talent in. himself, or at least in his family around 
him; muft himself supply the necessities of lite, 
one after another; and these necessities are too 
numerous, and too urgent, to permit hin^ to ac- 
quire a dextrous management in the treatment of 
one, before his attention is required by its suc- 
cessor. If this reasoning be juft, and if the necessi- 
ties of Ufe are supplied in haste, perhaps, too, im- 
perfedll)', surely, when articles of secondary moment 
are in question, they fliall be dismissed with little 
regard, infomuch, that after every supposable allow- 
ance as to the acquisition of conveniences, the ele- 
gancies of life mufl be relinquished : for what shall 
impcli the already wearied person, to seek after any 

thing 



LECT. I.] ARCHITECTURE. 5 

thing not essential to his comfort, when the acquisi- 
tion of indispensiblcs has been sufficiently fatiguing ? 

But beside the addiiional security, and strength, 
naturally arising from numbers, in a state of society, 
population is one source of wealth : and unques- 
tionably, it is also a parent of emulation. A splen- 
did dress, equipage, or habitation, are useless in a 
desert; but in a city, where they may be seen and 
admired, they are marks of distinction, they are 
supposed (how truly is not our question) to con- 
fer dignity, and. In their degree, to separate be 
tween the ranks of life. 

When a profession is fufficiently honourable, or 
lucrative, to engage the attention of several prac- 
titioners, then we hope for improvements and 
advances in that profession ; one pradtitioner will 
study and improve its theory, and its principles ; 
another will improve its practice ; and the desire 
of fame, or of fortune, will animate the endeavours 
of each to surpass the other, and to render himself 
conspicuous, by manifesting superior abilities. 

I wish 1 was not obliged to add, as another oc- 
cafion of improvement in the arts, that Superstition 
has greatly contributed to their advances. While 
men entertained ideas of paying to the deity 
superior worship, or of superior acceptance by devo- 
tions of superior expence, it is not wonderful they 
should endeavour to honour the objects of fuch 
worship by extravagant structures. These strudures 
moreover, after a time, became the boast of city 
against city, and country against country : thereby in- 
volving national honour as well as local fuperstition. 

Wc 



6 ARCHITECTURE. [lECT. I. 

We have hinted, that the primitive dwelling of 
man was, probably, beneath a tree, where, as he had 
enjoyed converse with his maker, he had undoubt- 
edly passed his happiest moments. There is, then, 
little wonder, that afterwards, trees, especially such 
as were of venerable aspect, and of spreading foliage, 
should be chosen by mankind as places of devotion. 

It is somewhat unhappy, that, in our translation of 
the scriptures, the passages which relate to Abraham's 
sojournings in the plains of Moreh, were' not rendered 
by the oaks of Moreh, for such is the import of 
the original word : and manv of the transactions re- 
corded in the history of that patriarch would appear 
more intelligible, had this been attended to i how- 
ever this may be, we find groves were, in ancient 
times, considered as necessary parts of devotional 
stru6bures, and happy v/ere the temples around which 
the oaks flourished. But, in no part of the world 
was the oak in higher honour than in Britain, where, 
forages, every solemnity was performed beneath it, 
and every important consultation, and assembly, was 
held under its branches j and afterwards, when stones 
were erefted into temples, oaks continued to be 
regarded as sacred accessories. The temples of the 
Druids were not, like those of Kgypt and Greece, 
properly buildings ; but rather, they were arrange- 
ments of stones in the nature of an avenue, lead- 
ing to other arrangements of the same material, which 
surrounded the altar; for, they held it impious, to 
interpose any impediment between themselves and 
the object of their supplications. 

The only occasion, on which, as I recoiled, they 

even 



LECT. I.] ARCHITECTURE. "j 

even admitted stones on each other, was in those 
surrounding the altar; where they placed on every 
two, a third, laid from top to top, and thereby uniting 
them : but, these stones were not hewn into form, 
or wrought into elegance, they possessed neither or- 
nament, nor polish, but, rough as they were found, 
they were deposited with infinite labour in the places 
assigned them. Much debate has been maintained 
concerning the learning of the Druids ; I shall only 
say, that, while they could contrive to remove, and 
to adjust, fuch enormous masses as would embarrass 
the most expert of our modern architedls, even in 
this age of science, their works demonstrate their 
abilities; and, the very remains of them, in part, sup- 
ply the absence of recording volumes, which the 
Druids never used. 

Druldical erevflions were so generally uniform, and 
similar, that, having noticed one, we have little more 
to add ; whereas, the temples of the more Eastern 
nations, after their principles were once adopted, con- 
tinued increasing in dimensions, and in magnificence. 
Having composed, and adjusted, one row of co- 
lumns, a second was added. The frontispiece of the 
building too, became an objed of attention, and, 
much decoration was bestowed upon this part of 
the strudure ; first, by pilasters, or pillars, partly in- 
serted in its walls ;>. then by a range of columns 
somewhat advanced from the sacred edifice; after- 
wards a second and a third range of columns were 
introduced, further to ornament and complete the 
entrance. 

By similar degrees were equal honours bestowed 

en 



8 ARCHITECTURE. [lECT. I. 

on the sides of the building, land ranges of pillars, 
forming walks for tlie contemplative, were con- 
flrufted on its wings; for, since it was not possible 
in all places where temples were situated, to sur- 
round them with groves, their architefts planted, 
as it were, columns in their stead; thereby, endea- 
vouring to supply that deficiency, and manifesting 
their own abilities in decoration, in contrivance, 
and in magnificence. 

The internal structure of the temples of antiquity 
deserves attention ; for the holy and the mod holy 
were not equally accessible. It vvas after the general 
splendour of the building, and especially after the 
magnificence of the portico, had struck the mind 
with soleniiiity, that the worshipper entered the sa- 
cred enclosure ; and that not on every occasion ; for, 
most of the offerings made on the altar, were pre- 
sented on tiiat before the temple j not on any with- 
in the temple i and here terminated many, if not 
most, of the sacred ceremonies. But, when the wor- 
shipper had entered the edifice, properly called the 
temple, beyond the first apartment into which he 
entered, was the adytum, or the most profound re- 
cefs, underftood to b*" the residence of the tutelary 
Deity. Now, as these apartments had no window, 
whatever were the rites performed within them (in 
imitation of the venerable gloom of the consecrated 
grove) they were performed in obscurity j or, torches 
and lamps, added their dim lustre to the mystic ce- 
remonies. Nevertheless temples dedicated to a variety 
of Deities, were constantly open at the topj whe- 
ther, supposing such an assembly to resemble that of 

the 



LECT. I.] ARCHITECTURE. * 9 

the Gods on Olympus, or whether to provide against 
errors in their votaries, who might, by mistake, 
worship a wrong God of the assortment, I will not 
determine. 

I could wish to communicate to my auditors 
some idea of the extreme magnitude of that scale 
on which some places of worship among the an- 
cients were composed: and therefore shall sele£l a 
few instances of the most famous and the molt re- 
markable. 

71ie general distribution of the Egyptian tem- 
ples we learn from Strabo, who thus describes it. 

" This is the disposition of the building of their 
temples. At the entrance of the sacred place is a 
pavement of stone, its breadth an hundred feet, or 
perhaps something lefs, but its length three or four 
hundred, and in fome places more: this is called 
the court, or approach. 

" Along the whole length from thence, on each 
side of its breadth, are placed stone sphinxes, twenty 
cubits, or fomewhat more, distant from each other, 
so that there is one row of sphinxes on the right, 
and another on the left. After the sphinxes there 
is a great vestibule; as you advance farther there is 
another vestibule, and likewife a third, for the num- 
ber is not limited, either of the vestibules or of the 
fphinxes, but is various in different temples, ac- 
cording to the lengths and breadth of the courts. 
After the vestibules is the temple, having a great 
anti-temple, or nave, worthy of admiration. 

" The sanctuar)' was of a moderate size; there 
was no carved images of the human form, but only of 

Vol. III. Edit. 7. C som© 



10 ARCHITECTURE. [lECT. I. 

some brute animal. On each side of the anti- 
temple are what tliey call wings ; these are two 
walls of equal height with the temple, at first distant 
from each other a little more than the breadth of the 
foundation of tlie temple; afterwards, as you ad- 
vance fartlier, they incline towards each other fifty 
or sixty cubits. Thcfe walls have sculptures of 
great images resembling extremely the Tufcan and 
ancient \Aorks among the Grecians." Strabo, 
page 805. 

But, as som.e specific instance may impart yet 
clearer ideas of the extent of thefe buildings; I 
shall select from Herodotus his description of the 
temple of Bubastis in Egypt. 

The approach to it was by a road, which sepa- 
rating two canals, had the appearance of an island; 
each canal being one hundred feet wide, and reach- 
in 2: from the Nile to the front of the edifice. The 
gates which formed the first entry were sixty feet 
high, and the size of their ornamental figures six 
cubits. The inclosure contained a wood of sacred 
trees, very high, planted around the body of the 
temple, wherein was the statue of the Goddefs ; 
each side of the inclosure being a furlong in length. 
Near the entry was a high road, paved, conducting 
to the public square, and bordered on each side by 
lofty trees, aspiring to the sky. * 

The magnificence of the temple of Solomon, I 
need not repeat, because it is a subjeft with which 
we all are familiar; but when we consider the 
happy coincidence of riches, skill, and devotional 
resolution, which distinguished its erector, we need 
not doubt of the extreme magnificence of Solot 
mon's sacred edifice. 



LECT. I.] ARCHITECTURE. II 

The temple of Solomon has long since ceased; 
the ploughshare of desolation has uprooted its foun- 
dations: of other most superb instances of human 
abilities, scarce any traces remain; the pyramids 
alone, firm by their erection, and permanent by 
their form, continue to demonstrate the veracity of 
those accounts which describe contemporary, or 
posterior, erections. 

A few temples in Greece, indeed, juft serve to 
excite our melancholy reflections over fallen gran- 
deur, and to relate the ravages of barbarism and 
ignorance ; if beside, the laborious and venturefome 
arciiitect can trace from pillar to pillar, and from 
arch to arch, those proportions which once infused 
solemnity into the spectator, or elegance into the 
building, it is all the age of Pericles can boast. 

And what further can we say of the ruins of 
Rome? the immense thermse of voluptuous luxury; 
the noble temples of magnificent superstition; what- 
ever was costly, or sumptuous; whatever was 
fplendid, and exquisite, were associated in Rome: 
In Rome, where we now meet -with — here and 
there a temple — remaining, but changed ; here and 
there — an obeliHi — but broken; here and there — a 
portico — a pillar — a frontispiece — but mutilated and 
impcrfcft. Triumphal arches, designed to perpe- 
tuate to eternity the actions of Emperors, and of 
warriors, are decayed; and consecrated Apotheosi 
(attributes of Deity) are mouldered into dust ; yet 
enough remains to render credible the writings of 
the historian, which describe these in their splen- 
dour, and to excite admiration at the abilities of 
the artists who composed, and constructed them, 

C 2 Mark 



12 ARCHITECTURE. [lECT. I. 

Mark how the dread Pantheon stands; 
Amid the domes of modern hands, 
Amid the toys of modern state, 
How nobly, how severely great ! 

These the northern ravagers destroyed : But, the 
Northern ravagers had their taste, and their style, 
and their fkill too, and let us do them the juftice to 
acknowledge, that it was not deficient in expres- 
sion ; like their poetry, which abounded in animated 
imagery, and bold phrrfcology, wild and irregular, 
yet often pathetic and lofty, void of conduct and 
plan, yet vigorous and affecting; so their architec- 
ture was peculiar and barbarous; dissimilar in its 
parts, multifarious, and injudicious, in its ornaments; 
confused, and perplexed, in its distribution. But, if 
the ages of ignorance w^anted gloom, the Gothic 
architecture was gloomy; it was correspondent to 
the hood, the cowl, the beads, the superstition of 
the times, and, even now, has great effc6t in pror 
ducing solemnity and reverence, and striking with 
awe the man of observation. Nor were the me- 
chanical parts of architecture unknown ; nor would 
many of our present architects be able to surpass 
the bold projection, and the lofty roof, which Gothic 
magnificence has left, as monuments of its abilities 
and emulation. 

Gothic architecture is a striking instance of the 
necessity of order; for, if the architects of the 
times alluded to, had studied uniformity and sym- 
metry, I think it not impossible they might have 
discarded, by degrees, those labyrinthine orna- 
ments, with which they endeavoured to conceal 

dispro- 



LECT. I.] ARCHITECTURF. 13 

disproportion; and, by reducini; tlic effect of their 
productions to the scientific principles of regularity 
and plan, tliey might have shewn, that their man- 
ner was susceptible of effects, peculiar and re- 
stricted, no doubt, yet, effects not always disgust- 
ing, or even despicable. 

Let me here, be permitted to consider the pe- 
culiarities of national style, as no insuperable 
hindrances to merit: according to the opportunities 
of persons, so should we estimate their produc- 
tions. That which would be very inferior from an 
Artist of. these enlightened nations, would deserve 
our applause from an Indian of America. As the 
pictures of Quintin Matsys, if not equa^ to 
Raffaelle, are yet highly laudable from the 
blacksmith of Antwerp; so die carvings of the 
Islanders in the South Sea, though not comparable 
to the living marbles of Phidias, and Cleo- 
MENES, yet arc instances of much patience and 
skill. And, for my own part, I would even praise 
some labours of the Chinese, if in return their vanity 
would but allow that Europeans also possefs the gift 
of fight, and are not totally void of understanding. 

Be it always remembered, that the natural and 
moral, situations of mankind, occafion a diversity 
both of sentiments and of necessities: consequently, 
a diversity of inventions, to satist}^ the principles of 
the first, and to prevent the inconveniencies of the 
latter. Thus, in Egypt, where they have no rain, 
but excessive heats, the roofs of the temples were 
almost fiat; for what need had they of a water- 
course? — but, to guard against the sultry climate, 

the 



14 ARCHITECTURE. [lECT. I. 

the edifices were low, in proportion to their extent, 
and every method was adopted to procure a ftream 
of temperate air, or a breadth of cooling shade. To 
accomplish this, a forest of pillars supported an 
enormous superstructure, and the colonade almost 
forbad the liglit of the sun, that it might shut out 
his beams. 

In Attica they, had rain, and therefore raifed their 
roofs to throw it off: in Attica they had the cool- 
ing breeze, and therefore m.ight venture to elevate 
the column from four, or five, diameters, to eight 
or ten: in Attica the people were addicted to mirth 
and festivity, and the character of their buildings 
was correspondent to their cheerfulncfs. Elegant 
proportion, therefore, was studied here; and to 
adorn their edifices with splendor, was agreeable to 
the disposition of a people so " merry as the 
Greeks:" while the voluptuous Roman expended 
his riches on decoration; covered with ornament 
every part of his structure, in defiance of expence; 
and lavished in wanton eliusions of magnificence, 
real or imaginary, the ill-gotten revenues of con- 
quered provinces. 

There remains yet to notice an order of religious 
buildings, different in many respects from any of the 
former; for, Christianity, though at first obliged by 
persecution to perform in obscurity much of its 
congregational devotion, yet desires not obscurity 
as agreeable to its genius. On the contrary, when 
well understood, it is cheerfull and animating: — 
what has, it then, to do with the darkncfs of the 
oracular cave, or the madness of midnight orgies? 

it 



LECT. I.] ARCHITECTURE. 15 

it has no mysteries forbidden to be divulged on 
pain of death; no (apovetta myi^tcria) things too 
sacred — no, says the Apostle — using the same term, 
things too vile to be difclofed. Tlic devotional 
structures of Christianity, therefore, may desire 
windows; like him, who, when promised by his 
architect, that his house should be so constructed, as 
not to be inspected; — " rather," said he, " let what 
passes there be open to all beholders:" or like him, 
who wished for an opening in his breast, that the 
integrity of his heart might be visible to all. Yet, 
with cheerfulness combining solemnity, the reli- 
gious edifices of the Christian dispensation are hap- 
pily calculated, in their principal requisitions, to 
aiford ample scope for the abilities of an architect. 

We have in our own country abundant instances 
in proof of this assertion; but one may be suf- 
ficient to mention : for, whoever has examined the 
cathedral of St. Paul at London, has feen magni- 
ficence in proportion, and regularity in diftribution, 
united to a remarkable lightnefs in construction: 
strong, not heavy; elegant, not gaudy; and perhaps 
as happy an instance as exists of the simplex mun- 
ditiis ; neither penurious, nor extravagant. 

It is natural to suppose, that peculiarities cor- 
respondent to those which distinguish the reli- 
gious edifices of any period, should also charac- 
terize the civil erections of the same time. Yvlien 
superstition inveloped the mind in gloom, no wonder 
the mansion was rather a castle than a house: the 
contracted window juft admitted light enough to ex- 
change darknefs for obscurity j and to permit that 

hospitality 



16 ARCHITECTURE. [lECT. T. 

hospitality, which, in some degree, corrected the 
ferocity of ignorance. But, as learning dissipated 
the clouds of barbarism, the advantages of a just 
tafte became more conspicuous, and gradually dis- 
played themselves in the superiority they imparted 
to domestic residences. Hence, in towns, splendid 
palaces, magnificent ofiices, comfortable dwellings, 
and spacious streets; in the country, noble seats, 
and decorated retirements j the elegant pleasures of 
a gentleman's villa, or the salubrious enjoyments of 
the ornamented farm. 

With regret we omit to instance correspondent 
improvement in the public buildings of the British 
nation: our national palace, our senate houses, and 
most of our public offices, are, and till lately all 
were, totally unworthy of this great people; but 
we have made a beginning, and it is to be hoped 
the case may hereafter be changed; and that, fol- 
lowing our example, posterity may be induced to 
complete the undertaking. 

At prcfent, I apprehend, the science of Ar- 
chitecture is no where more cultivated, or better 
understood, than in England ; many of the seats of 
our nobility, and gentry, attest this truth: and, 
though in most of our towns, our brick edifices 
arc not equal in appearance to the stone buildings 
of certain cities abroad; yet in finishing, in con- 
venience, in distribution, and in neatness, we 
very much excel them, and, while the real enjoy- 
ments of life continue to be of more intrinsic 
value and consequence than the tinsel of external 
finery, may this distinction ever be characteristic 
of the British Nation ! 

OBSER\^A- 



( n ) 
OBSERVATIONS 



ON THE 



PLATES BELONGING TO 

LECTURE I. 

ARCHITECTURE- 



PLATE L 



No. L T)^^^^ of a simple cabin, or primitive 
-*- dwelling : and may be conceived as re- 
presenting also a primitive structure for worship i 
suppofed among the Egyptians, Phoenicians, or 
other early people. 

No. II. A similar cabin ; but surrounded by an 
inclosure, and defended by a hedge, a wall, or some 
other simple defence, which indicates facredness. 

No. III. An edifice, whose mins still exist at 
Syenna, in Egypt : by the simplicity of its structure, 
it seems allied to the former. 

Tlie body of the building is preceded by a portico 
much larger than itself, having only one row of co- 
lumns. This edifice has been thought to be an ob- 
i»ervatory ; but that does not prevent its having been 
a temple also. The inclosure is to be conceived as 
coiTCspondent to the enlarged proportions of the 
edifice : this article must evidently be regulated by 
circumstances of convenience, or ability, and is 
therefore omitted. 

Arch. Edit. 7. D No. 



18 [lect I. 

No. IV. A temple, whofe ruins are at Eflhay in 
Egypt. This porch had two rows of cokimns ; and 
the temple itfelf is divided into more apartments 
than the others, probj^bly to accommodate a family. 

No. V. A temple whofe porch had fnuj^ rows of 
columns ; and wliich had in tront a large area, with 
a colonade on the sides. By the space of the build- 
ing, from wall to wall, this edifice is conjectured to 
have been open at the top. The ruins are in Egypt, 
at Etfou, 

No. VI. Exhibits the immense additions made to 
temples in procefs of time : here we have ( 1 ) (at 
bottom of the plan) prodigious obelisks, or other 
decorations of that nature, for the door-wav. Ilavine: 
entered the building, we have (2) an extcnfive and 
multiplied colonade ; in fa6t, a forest of pillars. 
Having passed another door-w^ay, we have (3) another 
colonade (of sing^le columns), and probably open at 
top, in the center at least j which leads into an open 
square (A) in front of the temple itself, colonnaded 
on the sides, with double ranges of pillars (5). A 
very magnificent portico of columns, &c. precedes 
(6) the entrance into (B) the sacred edifice ; in the 
interior of which (C) was probably the adytum, also 
the statue of the Deity, with a vestibule (D) 
behind it. It is evident that many apartments, &c. 
might eaiily be constructed around, and within, this 
temple, lor the accommodation of numerous at- 
tendants. Around the whole may be fuppofed 
approaches through avenues ot trees, and sacred 
groves ; or public roads, canals, 8iC. The ruins are 
still visible at Luxxor in Egypt. 

PLATE 



LECT. I.] 1^ 

PLATE IT. 

No. I. It has bcf^n thouglit very ]>robablc, that tlie 
Israelitish tabernacle in the wilderness resembled in 
itij p.lan that of the temples of tlie times, especially 
thole of Egypt: as appears in this figure, where 
the sacred edifice itself is lituated in the center of 
tlie inclosure, which is a kind ot colonnade. 

No. II. May impart an idea of the tront of the ta- 
bernacle ; which feems little different from thofe 
of other temples, except in the temporary nature 
of its materials. 

No. III. Plan of the temple of the Serpent 
Kimphis in Egypt ; a sacred edifice, surrounded by 
an area ; the inclosvire not wholly a continued wall, 
but in part composed of columns. 

No. iV . Elevation of the same structure : the 
pillar in the middle of the door-zcav, was more 
j)robably the result of necessity, than ot choice, 
and seems to indicate the great antiquity of this 
structure. 

No. y. Another Egyptian temple ; in composing 
which, the architect has endeavoured to add to its 
dignity by A very large area, colonnaded, [abed] 
having a portico. The tempk (A) is much like 
some preceding. A'ide No. V. Plate I. 

No. VI. Is an idea of the temple of Solomon, 
surrounded by an inclosure ; having on each of 
three sides a magnificent entrance (ABC) ; and on 
one side two entrances (DE). These buildings 
(as A) were fifty cubits long ; from them to the 
x)orchof the temple was 100 cubits ; the porch itself 
fifty cubits j and the court of the temple (R) 100 
cubits broad. S is the holy place. T the most 
holy place, .r x chambers of the priefts, constructed 
all round the temple ; not adjoining to it, but 
^separated from it by the little interval u u. 

D 2 PLATE 



eO [lect. I, 

PLATE III. 

No I. Plan of a temple, explaining the fupposition 
of the necessity for propping the roof by a row of 
supports throughout the middle of the building, as 
hinted in the LECtuRE, and partly exemplified 
in the door-ivay of the temple dedicated to the 
Serpent Knuphis; Plate II. Nos. III. and IV. 

No. II. Frontifpicce of a temple flightly orna- 
mented : i. e. with two pillars 2X the door-way, and 
a pilaster at each corner of the projecting walls 
which form the portico : called by the Greeks 
the Antes. 

No. III. Plan of such a temple. 

No. IV. Shews further progress in ornament, the 
front portico being formed and decorated by an ad- 
vanced row of columns, making in effect a double 
colonnade : it has also a row of columns at the back 
front. This kind of temple was called Prostyle, 

No. V. Plan of such a temple. 

No. VI. Shews the addition of a detached range 
diz(A\xmx\^ allromid the temple; also of several steps 
for elevation and additional grandeuF. . Tliis kind ■' 
of temple was called Peripteral, in allusion to 
the kind of wingy which the columns form to the 
temple. 

No. VII. Plan of such a temple. 

No. VIII. This temple has txvo rmvs of columns, 
in its portico, and all round ; with a flight of many 
steps in front and behind : and frequently all round. 
This kind was called Dipteral, or double-tvinged. 

No. IX. Plan of such a temple. 

No. X. A temple in the center of a colonnaded 
inclosure. Tlie ruins of one like this are thought to 
exist at Athens: It differs from the Egyptian, in 
having a colonnade in front of the inclosure ; also 
in the proportions of the temple, &c. 

PLATE 



LECT 1.] 21 

PLATE IV. 

No. I. Tower of the Winds at Athens: an 
octagon temple, of which hereafter. Vide l^late\^III. 

No. il. Plan of the temple of Jupiter Olym- 
p I u s at Athens : according to Pausanius, the area 
was a furlong in length on each side. The temple 
itself is dipteral; 'and, according to the general 
mode of the Greeks, is in length more than double 
its breadth. 

No. III. A Roman dipteral temple : in length 
just double its breadth. 

No. IV. Elevation of the Pantheon at Rome: 
a circular temple, of which hereafter. 

No. V. Plan of the Pantheon. 

No. VI. Plan of a temple at Baalbec: in which 
we notice, besides an immense flight of steps, a 
colonnaded portico and vestibule: the first court 
(A) ; the second court (B), very large ; the portico 
(C) ; the body of the temple (D). 'Die temple is 
Decastyle, i. e. has ten columns in its front 
portico. 

No. VII. Elevation of its portico. 



PLATE 



22 [lect. I. 

PLATE V. 

No. I. An idea of the subterranean catacombs, 
or burial-pkices ; wherein, during persecution, the 
early Christians are said to have assembled for 
worship. These were of different forms, as acci- 
dent or contrivance regulated their construction or 
excavation. They are found in Rome, Naples, 
Egypt, &c. 

No. II. An ancient cliurch ; the plan from 
Palladio. 

No. III. Plan of the ancient St. Peter's at 
Rome. 

No. IV. Plan of the famous Sancta Sophia, 
at Constantinople ; now a Turkish mosque. 

No. VI: Plan of St. Mark's church at \'enice. 

No. VII. Section of the church of St. Mary of 
Floicen; at Florence. 

These churches shew, especially, the progress in 
construction of domes, and cupolas; i. e. of circular 
coverings, resting on quadrangular foundations; 
which form of sacred edifices is peculiar to Christian 
structures for worship: not having been practised by 
the ancient architects. Vide the History of Art. 



PLATE 



LECT, I.] 23 

PLATE. VI. 

No. I. Section of the Augustin's church at 
Rome, 

No. II. Plan of the Augustin's church. 

No. III. Section of the present St. Peter's at 
Rome. 

No. IV. Plan of St. Peter's at Rome; with 
the colonnaded area, &c. which forms the approach. 

No. V. Exhibits the usual construction of 
churches in catholic countries ; w^ith chapels round 
the sides. This is the plan of the chapel at Ver- 
sailles. 

These six plates are intended to impart fome idea 
of the progress of architectural decoration and con- 
struction ; the designs arc mostly drawn to the same 
scale, except the very small ones, (especially the 
small elevations) which are ejilarged, to render them 
somewhat more intelligible. "We observe, on the 
whole, that the attempts of succeeding ages at 
sublimity or magnificence, were constantly directed 
to surpass their predecessors in the magnitude of 
their structures, and in the consequence of the ap- 
proaches to them. Whether so much attention 
bestowed on approaches, has not ofien injured the 
effect of the principal building, is doubtful. 

X. B. These plates tj-ace the progress of sacred 
edifices iji various coimiries, as 

In Egypt, Plate I. II. 

In Greece and BomCi Plate III. I\'. 

Of Christian churches, Plate V. VI. 

PLATE 



24 [lect. I. 

PLATE VII. 

No. I. Front elevation of a temple of that kind 
with Antes, i. e. ornamented only by a pillar 
on each side of the entrance ; and the projecting 
wall of the temple with a pilaster (properly the 
Antes). The order is Doric. 

No. 11. Tlie portico advanced, decorated with 
four pillars (con^espondent in situation to those of 
the Antci), the rest of the building plain. This 
kind was called pRosTYLAR, or Prostyle. The 
Amphi-pro STYLE had a similar portico in the 
back-front. The order is Ionic. 

No. III. Beside the advanced portico, now con- 
taining six columns in front, the roof is projected on 
both sides of the building, forming a walk between 
the body of the temple and the colonnade. This 
kind was called Peripteral. The order is 
Corinthian. 

No. rV^. A frontispiece, having eight columns in 
front ; also two rows of pillars, advanced from the 
body of the temple, on both sides, forming two 
walks. This kind was called Dipteral. 

No. V. A Pseudo-Dipteral j which, feen in 
front only, has the appearance of a dipteral : but it 
differs, by the absence of the inferior row of 
columns, the space between the body of the temple 
and the external row of columns, being vacant ; and 
making only one walk, of double the usual width. 

No. VI. Has ten pillars in front, but only two 
side walks ; the body of the temple comprising an 
extent equal to six pillars. This kind was called 
HypiETHRAL, i.e. open to the air: forming a 
kind of cloisters internally, and generally containing 
many deities. 

PLATE 



lECT. 1.] 25 

PLATE Vm. 

Hitherto we have attended only to temples whose? 
forms were square, or allied to square, as parallelo- 
grams, &c. Tills temple, the tower of the 
WINDS, at Athens, is octagon. 

This plate also shews the nature of a Section, 
?. e. the inside of a building, seen geometrically, 
as if the front wall was supposed to be absent : 
also, of a Plan, t. e. the foundation of a building 
supposed level with the ground. The peculiar 
construction of this roof, occasioned by the form 
of the building, is seen in the section, and also in 
the plan of the roof ; to which we have added the 
names of the eight winds, whose figures with their 
attributes are fculptured on the outside of the edifice. 

This building is still existing tolerably entire at 
Athens : and is used by the Ttirks, as a kind of 
mosque, or place of worship. The worship main- 
tained in it, is of a peculiar nature, and consists 
of a perpetual whirling motion, performed by the 
devotees, to a melancholv music; haviii": turned 
round swiftly, till their heads are giddy, they 
kiss the ground and retire. 

On each face of this edifice on the outside, are 
remaining the lines of the sun-dials which formerly 
occupied them: thefe are among the most anciervt 
of the kind remaining. 



V.oL.III. £c/zV. 7. E PLATE 



2^ [lect. I. 

PLATE IX. 

• CrRCULAR TEMPLES. 

^No. I. Monument; :to the honour of Ly sic rates, 
a victor in the public games, at Athens ; called by 
the •n'V9.derri Greeks, (but without authority), the 
Lanthorn of D e m o s t h e n e s . This is one of the 
most elegant little, buildings existing ; the peculiar 
richness of the roof, and. of the entablature, merits 
notice. It is supposed, the tripod won by Lysi- 
€ R A T E s , stood on the top- of the ' ornament -on the 

roof^ . . ;;::[.. 

No. II. Section of the .monument ,of L y s i c r a t e s . 

No. jTII. Elevation of a jteiiaple at Tivoli,- com- 
monly called the Sibyl's temple; but rather de- 
dicated to Vesta. 

No. IV. A Monopteral temple, /. e. having 
but one row of pillars, , which support the roof, and 
being open, without any wall to form the body or 
cell of the temple. 

Circular temples have a veiy pretty effect, in 
garderis, pleasure grounds, and parks: and they 
are much used in such decoration. 



PLATE 



LECT. I.] 27 

PLATE X. 

No. I. A circular Peripteral temple, /. e. having 
one row of pillars, advanced from the body, or cell 
of the temple. 

No. II. Its plan : wherein the walk between the 
body of the temple and the colonnade, is very 
evident ; the altar (when inside the temple) or statue 
of the Deity, is placed in the center: but in total 
darkness. 

No. III. The circular temple at Baalbec : wherein 
we observe the columns advanced from the body of 
the temple, as in the peripteral ; but affording no 
space for a walk around It, because connected to 
the temple by the circular sweeps of their pedestals, 
entablatures, &c. 

In these four plates we have attempted to convey 
to our readers a more distinct idea of the nature and 
variety of temples, &c. than was possible on the 
small scale of the preceding plates, where our 
object was, by comparison with each other, to shew 
the general progress ot this branch of art ; and, 
indeed, as only by comparison can distinct ideas of 
their differences be obtained, we have been solicitous 
to arrange these in a manner favourable to that in- 
tent. We have not thought it necessary to give 
plans of all thefe buildings, as most (?". e. the square) 
may readily be understood from plans already given ; 
and that given of a round structure requires little 
variation to render it applicable to all of that form ; 
and is further assisted by the plan of the Pantheon, 
and some others, introduced on a larger scale, at 
the close of the following difcourse. 

End of the Plates belonging /o Lecture I. 

LECTURE 



LECTURE II. 



Ladies and Gentlemen, 

THE difference behveen the works ' of Ommpo- 
tence and those of such feeble beings as our- 
selves, is never more apparent, than when we con- 
sider the principles, and the progress, of our at- 
tempts at magnificence, or sublimity. AVhat ex- 
tensive preparations! what unremitted labour! what 
accumulated toil ! what united efforts ! are necessary 
to erect a pile, which fhall impress a spectator as 
somewhat above the common ; whereas, with what 
ease does the Majesty of Heaven will, and it is 
-done, command, and it is accomplished; and this 
on a scale infinitely beyond the competition or con- 
ception of puny mortals! If we seek sublime in 
terror; vast rocks, awful precipices, immense moun- 
tains, ftrike us into trembling: if in serenity, the 
celestial expanse is sublimely serene. If we seek 
an instance capable of both; observe the smooth 
surface of the liquid plain; the immense pool is 
motionless: or if, obedient to the wanton zephyrs, 
gentle undulations creep over the transparent ocean, 
its languid murmurs die along the shore. Sublimely 
beautiful! placid, benign! the canal of industrious 
commerce! the liberal distributor of abundant 

wealth! 



$0 ARCHITECTURE. [lECT. II. 

wealth! the friendly union of distant nations! — is 
this that element, which anon fhall rouzc its resistless 
fury, in tempestuous billows teaming against the 
heavens? shall roll its circling eddies in restless 
agitation, and open its profound recesses ! deep 
as the grave ! obscure as the shadow of darkness ! 

The works of Omnipotence are simple principles, 
applied to a variety, an infinite variety of purposes; 
distributed into efi'e61:s apparently distant from their 
causes; into divisions whose origin seems scarcely 
related to its .offspring; not so are human pro- 
ductions: these, are an assemblage of various 
smaller articles, combined to form one whole; they 
are collections from distant quarters, composed, 
compounded, arranged and regulated, with much 
patience, contrivance, and ingenuity. To procure 
them is the province of labour: the sinewy arm 
must exert its strength to separate, or to secure, 
the wanted materials ; and vigorous efforts of united 
force, must be well plied, and well directed, to 
move and to adjust the cumbrous mass: but, to 
place this mass to the best advantage, to correal it 
into symmetry, to decorate it with delicacy and 
effeft, is the province of genius; of genius, happily 
assisted by knowledge and skill. 

The company I have the honour at present to ad- 
dress, will readily forego a relation of the labours 
of the quarry, or the toil of the brick-kiln: our 
attention, will be, I hope, niore agreeably engaged, 
on that part of architectural science which regards 
rather principles, than practice. 

We attempted to illustrate a former subjeft {vide 
Lecture III. of the first scries), by a reference 

to 



LECT. II.] ARCHITECTURE. 3t 

to some of the principles of this science; in which 
we considered uniformity, or symmetry, as 
appearing with great effect in the labours of the 
architect ; and iiulced, the presence, or the absence, 
of this principlcj is among our first observations, 
whatever be the instance we inspect. Its absence 
is notorious in many gothic erections, and is a prin- 
cipal cause of that discontent, perhaps disgust, 
with which we survey those erections. Every com- 
position of art requires that some part should be 
more conspicuous , than ■ the rest , that some 
distinguished portion should more immediately 
impress itself on the mind ofi the spectator, which 
he may, without hesitation, fix on at once as 
the direct object of his attention. In composition 
of architecture, this is a requisite altogether 
indispensable : but, if all parts of an edifice are 
alike, we distinguish no principal portjipn; or if 
all parts of an edifice are unlike, we experience, at 
least, equal perplexity, in guessing at what should be 
the principal portion. Moreover, the impressive 
effect- of composition, is not proportionate to its 
details, and its minulia, since these require time to 
be examined, and understood; but the effect is 
proportionate to the quantity of parts which are 
calculated to strike the spectator, at once: — This 
may be pretty, and that be delicate ; but, unless 
the aspect ot an edifice has previously raised an 
expectation of delicacy, and a conception^ that the 
subject deserves such attention, the finishing, though 
exquisite, will appear frivolous, or misplaced ; and 
therefore, instead of applause, may possibly jpeet coi> - 

tempt. 

There 



S^ ARCHITECTITRE. [lECT. II. 

There is nothing very sublime, I believe, in the _ 
firing of a musquet, or^of a dozen, or a score, of 
musquets in succession; but the same quantity of 
report employed in a large cannon, by its united 
effect, and instantaneous explosion, produces much 
greater sensations. The sublime of a single voice, 
vociferating fmzza ! is very moderate, let the voice 
be prolonged, or the shout repeated as long, or as 
often as may be ; w^hereas in the roaring of a mul- 
titude combined, there is something grand; now, 
if this roaring be regulated by happy modulation, 
and disposition, it becomes a chorus, and is un- 
speakably improved in effective grandeur, princi- 
pally by the power of symmetrical an-angement. 
So, in architecture, that composition will be most 
successful, which brings the greatest quantity t» 
bear on a spectator at once. Let me not be mis- 
understood; quantity, i. e. extent merely, is not my 
meaning; since the capacity and intelligence of a 
spectator to survey and comprehend them, do not 
increase with the increased dimensions of a fabric; 
"but, I mean that happy arrangement, which, by 
symmetry and distribution, enables the eye to com- 
prehend the composition, and its beauties, with 
the readiness of perception. 

Thiis, at a blow,' ate cut off the intricate multi- 
plicity of projecting corners, closets, flaircases, 
lowers, and turrets, which abound in some struc- 
tures: with all labyrinthine windings, and vermicu- 
lated decorations, which rather speckle, than adorn, 
the external of buildings: and, by reducing orna- 
ments to those of facile comprehension, we forbid 
much useless labour which has often been injudi- 
ciously 



LECT. II.] ARCHITECTURE. 33 

cioufly, perhaps injuriously, lavished. I think also, 
that this principle demonstrates the general su- 
periority of Grecian architecture: ornaments are 
ornaments; their effect is, to produce diversity; 
those of one shape may please as well as those of 
another; but, in the larger and more important 
principles of art, in conception, and in composition, 
an error is more serious and far less retrievable. We 
place, therefore, a symmetrical distribution, which 
^hall distinctly express the design of the edifice, 
and indicate its noblest parts, as a sine qua iioji in 
architectural composition. 

But, by symmetry, do we exclude variety ? 
certainly not. We merely forbid licentiousness;— 
variety run mad. We commend a diversity of 
forms, provided those forms be regular; and we 
exclude no variation, but such as tends to weaken 
the general effect. In fact, variety is equally ne- 
cessary as symmetry ; and equally neccssaiy as either 
variety or symmetr)', is, that propriety, and fit- 
ness, which to insure success, must regulate every 
exertion of art. 

No proof is required, I presume, that, accord- 
ing to the intended use of a building, it may vary 
in parts and dimensions. A parlour requires not 
the magnitude of a cathedral: nor am I of Wil- 
LiAM RuFUs's opinion, that Westminster-Hall 
is fit only for a bed-chamber. Propriety' not only 
never need be separated from elegance, or mag- 
nificence ; but, magnificence or elegance are pe- 
culiarly otTcnsive unless accompanied and regulated 
by propriety. 
Vol. III. Edit. 7 F In 



^4 ARCHITECTURE. [lECT. II. 

In requiring, therefore, the most suitable pro- 
portions for an edifice, we must previously un- 
derstand its destination ; for, according to its use, 
must be its magnitude ; and according to its mag- 
nitude must be its proportions. Various instances 
prove the power attributed to this principle by the 
architects of antiquity : where a colossal building, 
for instance, required extraordin^y altitude, they 
proportioned the members of the orders which com- 
posed it, not precisely, and exactly, as they would 
have done, had each been separate; but, allowing 
for the effect of perspective, and its inttuence in 
diminishing proportions, they determined their parts 
accordingly, adapting them to those stations from 
whence tVeir effect was moft likely to be estimated. 
Such variations of the parts of buildings imply 
correspondent variations in their general dimensions, 
to answer particular purposes. 

Moreover, the destination of an edifice regulates, 
beside its proportions, all its decorations. I readily 
grant, that we may worship the Deity with equal 
sincerity, and with equal acceptance, beneath a 
roof of thatch, as beneath a splendid domxc: yet, 
I cam;ot say, therefore, I would recommend a 
cottage for a cathedral; on the contrary, where 
multi'tudes assemble to worship, I would wish to 
render their worship commodious. Together with 
meanness, this concession prohibits whatever is 
gaudy, or glaring, since these contribute (often 
greatly contribute) to distract attention. In this re- 
spect, all comparisons between the rival churches 
of St. Peter's at Rome, and St. Paul's at Lon- 
don, are greatly in favour of the latter. 

I much 



LECT. II.] ARCHITECTURE. 35 

I much mistake, if splendid decorations ^be ana- 
logous to the design of a house of prayer, which is 
■the simplest and most diioct idea of an edifice for 
worship : Are they not rather, likely to excite that 
admiration of the artist's abilities, which is incon^ 
sistent with the intense humility of devotional sup- 
plication? Let us imagine ourselves entering a superb 
edifice, viewing on either hand fluted columns, and 
pilasters of exquisite workmanship, supporting 
highly ornamented arcades, surrounded by statues 
of great merit, and by pictures of most sublime 
composition; — we advance further into the build- 
ing; we observe the wreathed pillars, and the 
angelic figures; we look up to the dome, look around 
to the aisles, look forward to the altar; the whole 
is enriched with scrolls, shells, foliage, and festoons ; 
with every device of sculpture, and painting, with 
every ornament of human art : Is there nothing in 
all this to bewilder our attention, to dissipate our 
reflection, to amuse, rather than to augment the 
reverence which brings us to this sacred temple ?— 
But St. Paul's has no such profusion of mag- 
nificence ; the structure is indeed giand, but simple 
in its parts, and plain in its ornaments : no pictures, 
and little sculpture ; nor do I wish to see its sculp- 
ture much augmented, except perhaps, by mo* 
numental erections to those great men, who may 
deserve of their country to have their memory so 
honourably transmitted to posterity; and these 
might be placed in the circumference beneath the 
dome, to great advantage. 

I confess, I think the humbler- parish church is 
F 2 more . 



S$ ARCHITECTURE. [lECT. II. 

more happily adapted to its purposes tlian the gaudy 
St. Peter's; but, I would not confound a parish 
church with the dwellings of the parochial in- 
habitants around it. It requires distinction, and 
variety, in its ornament, as in its construction ; nor 
am I Puritan enough to suppose, that pillars at the 
porch, or pilasters within, would hinder the fer- 
vency, or the acceptance, of devotion. 

We look elsewhere then for the seat of decoration, 
and magnificence; where the senate of a great 
nation, the representatives of a powerful and 
opulent people, meet to regulate their power and 
opulence; where royalty erects its throne, and the 
seat of government is apparent ; where foreign vi- 
sitants are received with due distinction, whatever 
be their rank ; and where, if ever, pride, national 
pride is laudable, there introduce the rich enta- 
blature, the ornamented moulding, the polished 
shaft ; there exhibit the flowing wreath, and the 
gracefully-pendant festoon : but beware even there, 
that dignity be not lost in decoration, or genuine 
elegance be enthralled by lavish profusion- 

Or, if the nobles of the land wish to erect man- 
sions suitable to their estates, we commend the in- 
tention ; their patronage will encourage art ; in re- 
turn, art will supply conveniencies not otherwise 
to be procured, and elegancies not othervvise to be 
enjoyed ; art will furnish personal accommodations 
adapted to their conspicuous situations, and splendid 
distinctions correspondent to their exalted dignity. 
By what powers, or means, art will succeed in this 
attempt, I proceed now briefly to notice. 

There 



I.ECT II.] ARCHITECTURE. 37 

There are certain principles in which every 
erection intended for habitation must of necessity 
a^ee; such as, that it should be a defence from 
the vicissitudes of the seasons; that it should be a 
commodious receptacle for property; that it should 
permit the necessary avocations of nature, and con- 
tribute to safety and satisfaction as well by night as 
by day, and so on. These are but a part, though a 
very important part of architectural study : indeed, 
it is not easy to notice the variety of which archi- 
tecture is capable, much less to render it improving, 
or entertaining: nor is it my present design, to 
enter into a detail of carpentry^ and perplex my au- 
ditory with the distinctions and applications of 
beams, timbers, girders, joists, and rafters; these 
we lea\'e to whom they may professionally concern ; 
but we shall attend somewhat to the leading and 
standard principles of building, and then turn our 
attention to those compositions which profess to im- 
part peculiar elegance. 

Having thus attended to the necessary properties 
of a building, let us now advert to the nature, and 
the application of its ornaments. 

In a former discourse we remarked, that, to in- 
crease the magnificence of their temples, the an- 
cient arthitects augmented the number of their 
columns; and, that whenever elegance was ne- 
cessary', recourse was had to colunms : What is 
there in columns wliich entitles them to this di- 
stinction? or, are they all equally elegant? 

There seems, I think, little reason to doubt that 
trees vv-cre the first supports to buildings of con- 
siderable 



58 ARCHITECTURE. LECTIl..] 

siderable size; and were, most probably, inserted 
into the walls, to sustain, either an upper ston.', of, 
beams of considerable weight, on which the roof 
rested. The strength which they contributed, when 
by attentive genius rendered regular, brought them 
into use ; and by progressive improvements, they in- 
creased in importance, and in ornament. 

There remain in some early edifices, very remark- 
able indications, that ancient architects, in erecting 
stone buildings, did little more than substitute one 
material for another; they have imitated very closely 
the courses, and the appearances, of those beams 
of wood, which were necessary to be laid from 
part to part, for additional support. It is true, 
they ornamented these marbles, but without ex- 
cluding the appearance we have mentioned; and 
had we now extant the original attempts at this 
substitution, probably the likeness might be yet 
more explicit. This is very apparent in certain 
parts of the orders: let us therefore now turn our 
attention to the orders; and to this circumstance, 
among others, belonging to them. 

The orders are usually reckoned five: the Tuscan, 
the Doric, the Ionic, the Corinthian, the Composite: 
not that the difference is throughout considerable 
between these orders: for, between some of them 
the variation is rather in their ornamental parts than 
in their general principles, or their apparent con- 
fcrmation. 

The Doric order of columns is considered, I 
apprehend justly, as the most ancient. The 
earliest Doric specimens remaining, usually con- 
sist 



LECT.II.] ARCHITECTURE. 39 

sist of the following parts: (1) the shaft of the 
column, which goes strait into the ground, or which 
rchts on a step, without ornament, or moulding of 
any kind at the bottom, to form a base; and, this 
absence of the base occurs, notwithstanding the 
shaft may be decorated with flutings, which in- 
dicates a progress in ornament. On the upper part 
of the shaft i^ (2) the capital; the form of whose 
members, in early instances, seems to convey an 
idea of prcffure by supporting considerable weight; 
over the capital, is (3) the architrave, and (4) the 
frieze, which correspond exactly to so many pieces 
of timber, laid one over the other, and from column 
to column. (5) The cornice, by its projection, 
seems intended to protect the under parts from the 
injuries of the weather; and very probably, was 
originally designed for that service. 

Some have said, that, the Doric column was pro- 
portioned to the form of a well-shaped man; and 
the Ionic was imitative of a delicate woman : It 
might be so; but I am not without suspicion, that 
this resemblance, and i^s application, was dis- 
covered after the invention of these orders: it 
seems to me an ingenious after-thought grafted 
upon them, arising, from observing their different 
decorations, and proportions, In faft, the manly 
Doric not suitins: well the lio-htcr kind of edifices, 
it was natural to think of lengthening the shaft, or 
tapering its diameter, which in effect is the same: 
nor w'as it difficult to enrich, or to elevate the en- 
tablature, when lightness and elegance were wanted 
to characterize the structure in which the order w^as 
to be employed. 

The 



' 40 ARCHITECTURE. [lECT. II. 

The volute, which forms a very important part of 
the capital of the Ionic column, bears some re- 
semblance to a ram's horn, supposed to be hung on 
a pillar (we know such ornaments were placed 
around altars) ; as the trygliphs of the Doric order 
are considered as having originated from the sacred 
lyre j and the heads of sheep, or of oxen, which 
adorn the Metopes, from those parts of animals 
llain for sacrifice. It is, indeed, likely that most 
ornamental appendages of the orders, originated 
from some accidental occurrence, or fi-oni some ce- 
remonial custom ; thus, the torus of the base is 
thought to have been suggested by the passage of 
cords, or bands, with which the pillar was bound to 
ensure its stability; or, of those cords which, 
having drawn up a canopy, were wound around a 
pillar to secure them. If, indeed, the priests (who 
were usually poets also) hung their lyres on the 
walls of their temples, they might suggest the idea 
of the trygliph ; and, when once such an ornament 
is adopted, what prevents other implements from 
being esteemed ornamental, and appropriate also ; 
as shields, &c. to the God of AVar, and toliages 
of the various sacred trees, to their rL\spcctive di- 
vinities, around whose temples they grew. 

Tliose persons who have doubted, whether 
architecture was capable of expression, seem never 
thoroughly to have considered the distinction of the 
various orders, or their natural progress. I think 
it evident, that, in early times, sacred edifices were 
decorated with the Doric order j and, thereby, it 
seems not unlikely, that an idea of sanctity be- 
came connected with it. It might be thought, 

perhaps 



LECT. II.] ARCHITECTURE. 41 

perhaps, too serious for places of pleasure, and di* 
version; and a lighter, more airy, and ornamented 
style, might be required for such gay erections. 

To characterize the orders, I should say, the Doric 
is manly, and firm ; tlie Ionic is beautiful, and de- 
licate; the Corinthian is magnificent: but the mag- 
nificence of the Corinthian was perfected long after 
the others had been employed, and had become 
popular. 

Concerning the capital of this order, is related, 
one of those accidental instances of good fortune, 
which usually occur to those only who by their merit 
deserve such favours, and are qualified to improve 
them. The history is to this effect : With that kind 
of regard which we shew to the memory of those 
we love, a nurse of Corinth, whose child was dead, 
brought out her play-things, and placed them in a 
basket before her tomb ; the basket happened to 
stand on a root of Acanthus, which, springing up 
around it, formed by its leaves a decoration that 
perhaps had been frequently paffed unnoticed by the 
eye of ignorance. But, the effect of knowledge is, 
to instigate the mind, and to direct its researches. 
WTiatever is beautiful, whether common, or un- 
common, is an object of att^ention to the well- 
informed, and this hiistory is one proof of it : for, 
the sculptor Callimachus passing by the tomb, 
was pleased with the elegant appearance of the 
basket, thus decorated by the luxuriant Acanthus; 
and, having made a design from it, he afterwards 
used this new, and beautiful, ornament to embellish 
the capitals of columns. Correspondent to the 
Vol. III. Edit, 7. G gaiety 



42 ARCHITECTURE. [lECT. II. 

gaiety of this decoration, the proportions of the 
Corinthian order arc taller, and more superb, 
than those of its predecessors. 

These tliree orders are, in fact, all that a just 
taste would think necessary, since one, or other, of 
them suits almost any kind of structure; but as it 
is usual to reckon the orders as five, we shall 
mention the Tuscan, and the Composite. 

Ilie Tuscan order is, in its princi])lcs, nearly al- 
lied to the Doric, and is, cither the Doric order in- 
jured, by want of skill in those who employed it, 
or, perhaps, a transcript, or imitation, of it, when 
in its early stages; which, by being carried into a 
remote country, never arrived at perfection. As to 
the Composite, that is an union of the Ionic, and 
the Corinthian orders, which, however it may suc- 
ceed in some cases, in others it spoils both. 

It is evident, it we trace the progress of columnar 
proportion, that it continued increasing in height, til! 
the judgment of the architect was convinced he had 
sufficiently tapered, or lengthened, his column: and 
perhaps, it is not easy to determine, whether was 
deserving of most applause, that judgment, which, 
by perpetual improvements, advanced to a certain 
point; or that, wlwc^i k-^^^X? reached this . point, 
was convinced of the impiopricty of passing beyond 
it, and forbore to force ail hexond her abilities. 
■ The proportional height ot many very ancient, 
perhaps, tlic most ancient, Doric columns remain- 
ing, is but four, or five, ot their diameters, next 
the base; by degrees, however, they were propor- 
tioned to six, and afterward^ to seven, or eight, in- 

cludinji 



[lR-CT. II. ARCHITECTURE. 43 

eluding bases and capitals, which latter (capitals) 
are hut small in structures of remote antiquity. 
As to pedestals, it is clear, as they had no bases, 
the columns of this order could have no pedestals. 

The Ionic column was elevated to nine diameters, 
including the base, ^nd the capital, and thereby 
acquired a lightness which the Doric did not pos- 
sess ; the members of its entablature, also were pro- 
portionally elevated, to correspond with the delicacy 
of the column : and now, pedestals were introduced, 
as imparting greater height to the order, without 
disturbing its parts. 

Ten diameters were given to the Corinthian 
column ; and its entablature was varied, of course. 
Beyond this, we have no rules for proportionate, or 
regular, architecture; and we find, -that, (as in 
sonie (TOthic buildings) where pillars of more 
-slender dimensions are adopted, they must be placed 
in combinations of several together, one alone being 
■vveal^, and insufficient for strength either re'al, or 
a'ppfirent. > 

'1 he etfect ot an order is veiy much determined 
by the projections of its parts, (which constantly 
should pres<h-ve a certain ratio to their heights) and 
depends greatly on the shadows such parrs'will cast 
when in their proper places in the building. There- 
fore, it sometimes happens, that where a' bold pro- 
portion is given to the niembers of an iiTfciior order, 
it shall acquire a greater appearance' of dignity*, 
and produce a more forcible effect, than a richer 
lompusition, or more delicate workmanship. 

Besides being susceptible of the highest decora- 
G 2 tion. 



44 ARCHITECTURE. [lECT. IT. 

tion, the orders impart an appearance of strength 
to a building ; they seem to contribute support, and 
stability, which evidently is of much importance in 
architecture. Now, as it is contrary to every idea 
of probability, that the weaker should support the 
stronger, the elegant support the robust, or the de^ 
licate the sturdy; therefore, in determining the situa- 
tions of ordei;3 over each other, we must regard 
their respective characters, and proportions ; and 
their fitnesses for the services required from them. 

According to this view of the subject, the 
Tuscan order is fit only for places little exposed j 
and where gross strength is a principal recom- 
mendation; therefore, being the stoutest of the 
orders, it is used at the bottom of buildings, and in 
lowermost situations. 

More noble than the Tuscan, though not so 
elegant as the Ionic, the Doric order is placed be- 
tween them ; and, like the direction of wise coun* 
sel, regulates the whole composition, though un- 
noticed by the perception of ignorance; — Upon 
the following principles. 

It is clearly necessary, that columns, when 
above others, should staud immediately over the 
center of those beneath them, and not be removed 
on either side^ which would be absurd. Still more 
absurd would it be, to place three columns as sup- 
ports to four, and so on. It being, I say, necessary 
that the same perpendicular line should j)ass, cen- 
trally, through the superior and the inferior column, 
and the distance from column to column in the 
Doric order being regulated by the Metopes, 

(which 



JLECT. 11.] ARCHITECJURBi 46 

(which must be square) and by the Trygliphs, 
(which are half a diameter of the column, and 
which must be placed immediately over the column) 
it follows, that according to the Metopes and 
Trygliphs, must be situated the Doric column; and 
correspondent to the Doric, must be placed the 
Ionic directly over it, and the Corinthian directly 
over the Ionic. For, these orders being lighter, as 
they are more elevated, are unfit to support those 
beneath them, and therefore are regulated, not only 
in their situations, but also in their proportions, by 
the proportions of those below them. Observe 
likewise here, that there is a natural alliance be- 
tween those orders whose proportions are most 
nearly alike. To employ the Tuscan order to 
support the Corinthian, though it is very well able 
for such employment, is to sustain a light weight, 
by a prop adapted to a heavy load, consequently, it 
is misplaced ; not to mention the too great opposition 
between the magnificent richness of one, and the 
rustic pljiinness of the other : but, when the Corin- 
thian order is supported by the Ionic, the affinity is 
pleasing; or, when Doric columns sustain Ionic 
columns, though apparently well calculated for this 
purpose, as being strong, yet their strength seems 
to be suitably employed, and not wasted. 

For the proportions of the parts of the orders be- 
tween themselves, and each other, I refer to the 
examples. I consider as very censurable those 
breaches of distinction, and appropriation, aiiiong 
the orders, which have sometimes been fashionable, 
through the influence of masters whose abilities 

might 



46 a^chiVectuR^. [lect. it. 

might have been better employed. It feems to me 
idle to say, <' I wanted embellishment in that in- 
stance, and therefore have decorated the Doric pil- 
lars, and entablature, equal to the Corinthian: I 
have -given it a capital of lea\'es, 'rofcs in its abacus, 
and have embellished an ovolo in its cornice with 
eggs' and darts." This confusion, I say, ought to 
be avoided; since, if all this richness, was proper, 
or necessary, why not use the Corinthian, or the 
Ibhic, at once.? If these orders were unknown, the 
excuse of necessary ornament hiight be pardonable; 
but, while character is allowed to be of importance, 
it should be adhered to: and even if urged by what 
is thought necessity to -st deviation' from" it, which, 
I am persuaded, is riot often the case, rt should be 
deviated from as little as maybe.""' • -' — 

Propriety is, I thiilk,''the just'^yirct'tor on all oc- 
casions ; and very far am I froiih'i'rpposirig^' that ge- 
neral regulations are perpetually fo 'be "(^liforced..' I 
would not ornament a mile-stone with a Capital of 
Acanthus, because it was so many diameters hioh ; 

o - 

it would' be misemployed: nor do I thinlc'theW'orse 
of those ?reat 'architects, who have' ch^s^ri the 
Tuscan, though the' least elegant order, for the' pil- 
lars which perpetuate the memory. of Tk 'a jam ^nd 
of AuREL'iA-N ; 'bett-m'si?,' these 'iTillai-^-'feng'^im- 
mcn se masses, standing • alone,' 'aind' HHfi^ 'cfecrVr'aied 
witli historical sculptures, arc out ^ofth'c \isital a]^- 
plications of art. Moreover, we Itjiv'c but to" Cdn- 
t^iQer the effect of "perspective on' the lengthened 
shaft of a taller pillar, to perceive that the upper- 
most rang'.'j of figures' in sucli erections, must haVe 

been 



LECT. II.] ARCHITECTURE. 47 

been rendered, if not nearly invisible, yet greatly con- 
fused and indistinct : and, I doubt not, that if Sir 
Christopher Wren had been engaged to erect, 
as a monument of the fire of London, a pillar whose 
shaft was to have been historically ornamented, ho 
would have preferred, for that reason, the Tuscan 
order to the Doric. 

. As to the ..variety of minor ornaments which may 
be introduced in architecture. It is too extensive (I 
nii"-ht say almost infinite) to be now repeated : 
character, and appropriation, is all I shall insist on 
as necessary to be observed in tbis article. For, who 
would approve of ornamenting the residence of a 
general officer with lyres, and myrtle foliage? or, a 
lady's bedchamber with trophies of the stern God 
of war? Rut, when Blenheim is building to com- 
memorate a victory, let not trophies be absent from 
thence; or, when a senate-house Is erecting, forget 
not the symbol of eloquence (a Caduceus), or the 
Civic crowm. 

Architects have debated, whether human figures 
were, or were not admissible, asexternal terminations 
of the upper parts of structures. It is said on one side, 
that figures are the most elegant terminations, that 
they may be symbolical also, and, that all the 
world knows they arc stone : which reasons are 
urged in answer to those who remark, that they 
are placed where nobody would choose to stand, 
or, indeed, could stand long with safety; and 
they arc exposed to all weathers, which neither 
(jods, or Goddesses, it they represent such sub- 
jects, nor human beings, if tliey are meant for mere 

mortals. 



4§ ARCHITECTURE. ftECT. IT. 

mortals, would be able to endure ; that other sym- 
bols, if symbols are necessary, might be equally ex- 
pressive ; and that, beside what elegance may be 
found in other kinds of terminations, true elegance is 
inconsistent with absurdity. These reasons are so 
strong, in my opinion, that I survey without pleasure 
those unhappy figures, which are condemned to a 
situation whereat humanity shudders: and very rarely 
may such ornaments be adopted without trespassing 
against propriety. 

Nearly allied to the foregoing article, is, the order 
ofCARYATiDEs, wliich IS, a Substitution of figurcs, 
generally female, (for when male figures are used, 
it is then commonly termed Persian) instead of 
pillars. Its origin, we are told, was this: when the 
Persians invaded Greece, the town of Caryata, 
instead of combining with the rest of the Grecian 
cities, in defence of their common liberties, made a 
truce with the invaders, and thereby vir^akened the 
hands of their countrymen. In refentment of this 
behaviour, after the defeat of the Persians, the 
the Greeks attacked, and took, the town of Caryata; 
they condemned the inhabitants to slavery, and 
dispersed them among the cities of Greece ; also, to 
render them instances of greater severity, they for- 
bad them from wearing any other dresses than what 
they had already adopted, and by which they were 
ever after distinguished, go where they might. And 
further, in order to perpetuate their disgrace, the 
architects, and the sculptors, of those times, com- 
posed an order of figures, to which they gave the 
name of Caryatides; and these they represented in 

slavish, and disgraceful, attitudes. 

It 



LKCT. II.] ARCHITECTURE. 40 

It is not necessary for us to take up thesejdeas 
on the Carvatic order; l)ut, whether it be applicabla 
to })urposes of ornament in present circumstances^ 
is ail we have to consider. I tliink, for reasons al- 
ready alledged, this order is little adapted to external 
decoration : it is true, they are now chiefly com- 
posed of allegorical figures, such as deities, virtues, 
nymphs, 8cc. but, methinks, to expose the virtues 
to all risques, and to every injury, on the outside of 
;i building, seems in some degree to indicate their 
little influence on the master wTthin ; at least, they 
furnish the sarcastic with such reflections. An in- 
stance, not dissimilar, was the equestrian statue of 
Louis XV. in the place I.uuis quinxe at Paris, by 
Bouchardon; the pedestal being supported by the 
four cardinal virtues, gave rise to a pasquinade, to 
this efiect : 

What a comipal fellow is this Bouchardon ? 
His work we complain of as grievoufly wrong ; 
His VICE here on horfeback he ventures to feat. 
While the cardinal virtues are under his feet. 

There is yet another reason, which I think in- 
superable, w^hereforc figures should not be used in 
external decoration of buildings ; which is, that be 
tlieir dimensions what they may, the eye will never 
judge them to be so much larger than life, as they 
really are ; and therefore, being unable to augment 
its estimation of them proportionately to the mag- 
nitude of the building, it will diminish the build- 
ing by an estimate correspondent to its ideas of these 
flgures. It is easy to conceive from hence, how 

Vol. III. £V//. 7. II greatlv 



50 ARCHITECTURE. [lECT. II. 

greatly a structure may lose of its just importance by 
this diminution ; and pcrliups we have an instance 
of it in that particular of St. Peter's, which I for- 
merly noticed, (Lecture I.) : for, if the perspective 
effect is so far deceptive to tliose who examine the 
great altar, as to induce them to estimate the figures 
at only half their true sizes where is the wonder 
that a similar error should regard the whole di- 
mensions of this building as less than they are, 
since it is crovrdcd with abundant objects, each of 
which may contribute to such deception? It is a 
fact, that at the first survey of this church, strangers 
always judge it to be less than they find it, after 
they become better acquainted with its various parts. 
I know this has been accounted for, by supposing' 
its arcades arc too high; perhaps, however, both 
reasons may unite. 

After having disapproved of too much ornament 
on the outside of buildings, I shall indicate where, in 
my ophiion, ornament rp.ay be suitably employed ; 
and that too, without fe^r its delicacy should be. 
overlooked : I mean in those apartments which, in 
most, I might say, in every, capacious structure, 
arc appropriated to festivity, and hilarity. Here let 
the composition, the effect, and the ornaments also 
be festive, and hilarious; whatever may attract or 
delight the eye, whatever may diversif}^ and em- 
bellish the scene, sn:ill hLie reign uncontri^lled. 
For, thougb a visitant would appear sufficiently 
aukward if employed in examining the exterior or- 
naments of a structure, while its owner waited for 
him at the enhance ; vet in the drawing-room, or in 

the 



LECT. II.] ARCHITECTURE. 51 

the cabinet, what forbids his enjoying the satisfac- 
tion of the artist'- clvrsign, the delicacy of his work- 
manship, the finishing, and the propriety, of his 
embellishment, or the striking effect of his com- 
position? Here also the lighter orders apply, and 
their magnificence is better within our view ; here, 
too, if symbols are introduced, a spectator may have 
that time in which to ascertain tlieir nature, and 
their application, which he could scarce bestow 
conveniently on the outside of the edifice. 

There will always be a diversity of opinioi)s on 
the effects of manv parts, especially the ornamental 
parts, of every composition, (otherwise taste would 
constantly be alike, and variety would be excluded) ; 
yet, the primary and leading ideas of sciences which 
have been the constant study of mankind, are not 
now to be quitted, or exchanged. The innumerable 
occasions, and circumstances, which arise, and 
which require particular adaptation, afford ample 
opportunity for the exertions of architectural (kill; 
and where, by happy contrivance, or foresight^ or 
by judicious remedy of defects, and impediments, 
from whatever cause arising, an artist overcomes 
difficulties, or iniproves capabilities, let him have 
his just, his full share of praise. Natural genius is 
not confined to any spot, or to any people ; and, 
in my mind, the constructor of Pont-y-prid bridge, 
in Wales, though a mere mason, or a mere country 
carpenter, may vie, as a man of genius., with the 
author of the Rialto. 

The science of architecture is of great extent; it 

has produced many huge folios; many more it will 

H 2 produce; 



52 ARCHITECTURE. . [lECT. II. 

produce ; and it may justly claim the character of 
" njaking many books, to which there is no end." 
It will not, therefore, be expected from me, (how- 
ever desirous of imparting information) that I should 
be able to comprise within the limits of an evening's 
discourse, the whole of a study so multifarious, and 
extensive. 

But, notwithstanding our attention to those prin- 
ciples of architectural decoration, upon which this 
science mav be said to value itself, has been some^ 
^vhat. lengthened,' I cannot exclude from this lec- 
ture a few remarks on those hmnble, but not less 
happy structures, which without pomp, and parade, 
contribute to the enjoyments of human life; they 
raise no envv in the spectator, by their grandeur, or 
their ornaments, but, if acquainted with their in- 
liabitants, he admires, and esteems, the benevolence, 
philanthropy, and decorum, which inhabit them, 
virtues which arc not symbolical, but actual, 
and active. Our sea-girt isle has many such; 
^yhcre every comfort of life, and whatever is really 
valuable abounds, where genuine ornament, both of 
mind and person, is liberally acquired, and where 
liumnn life rolls on with pleasure and delight. 

Who would not wish in such an habitation to 
pass his days! not indeed that the habitation, merely, 
insures this felicity, though certainly it m.ay promote 
it. If, therefore, any of my auditory should have 
occasion to erect sucli a fiibric, let tliem first con- 
sider well the situation of their proposed dwelling: — 
not in a bottom, where an ampliithcatrc of sur- 
rounding hills forbids every opening prospect; 

where 



LECT. II. J AHCinTECTUPE. 5S 

wlicre nishing- waters niclancholy roar, and the 
winter's torrent sweeps all before it; where rubies 
are tlie only ornament of the mire, and vegetation 
is suffocated by mud : — not on a steep hill, whose 
rapid acclivities cire of lonc^-v.-inded measurement, 
and laborious ascent, on which the rude blafts of 
the bleak nortii wind beat full, and whose hollow 
howl is tlie melancholy music of the cold-confined; 
inhabitant. But, where the easy descent affords an 
cnhvening view, a view which excites exercise, re- 
peatedly to enjoy it, and which amply repays the 
gentle exertion ; where the promenade may be di-. 
versified by variety, and prolonged by novelty, there i 
scat your dwelling, especially if vegetation flourishes;/ 
and if the waters are plentiful, and salubrious. 

Shall I describe a dwelling for such a situation ? 
let it be, without, simple and plain, but uniform 
and symmetrical ; decorous, yet varied ; void of 
frippery, but not of taste: the entrance, advanced 
to meet a friend, offers pillars of the modest Doric 
only, graced, perhaps, with a basso relievo; this 
conducts to the entry, adorned with simple pilasters; 
but in tiie dining room, and the parlour, the order 
changes, and with it changes the style of decora- 
tion. Thb garden front, is perhaps embellished with 
Ionic pilasters, raised a step, or two, above the 
gravel walk: here display " flowers of all hue, 
and every fragrai't scent :" a little further, evergreens 
jnay compensate in winter for the room they occupy 
in summer. If, on either hand, clumps of lofty 
trees, or plantation.s of shady groves adorn the 
sides, they complete the scene, without interrupt- 



ing 



54 ARCHITECTURE. [lECT. 11. 

Ing the prospect. What enjoyments are distant, 
we must enjoy at a distance ; nor wish the river di- 
verted from its channel, to conduct it through our 
garden canal: No, let it be a public benefit; it 
shall add to the pleasure of the prospect, and per- 
fect the view by its traffic, its meanderings, aild its 
resplendence. Here, health and serenity, here 
peace and tranquillity shall fix their residence ; here 
-shall life glide on imperceptibly; here shall body and 
mind, acquire strength and improvement : here will 
we exercise our important prerogatives as rational, 
and immortal, beings, whose views extend beyond 
the narrow compass of this limited globe, and, 
who await above the fkies, not merely habita- 
tions, but MANSIONS, of felicity. 



OBSER. 



( 55 ) 

OBSERVATIONS 

ON THE 

PLATES BELONGING TO 
LECTURE II. 



THE series of plates to the former discourse, ex- 
exhibited the progressive additions which were 
made in succeeding times to the edifices intended 
for sacred services: the present series of plates will 
explain, first, the principles, the constructions, 
■and, the parts, of structures; and afterwards, 
will offer examples of several of those buildings, 
and other erections, which are esteemed the most 
i^iportant and perfect of their kind. 

^"■\ 

PLATE XI. 

CONSTRUCTION OF HUTS. 

This plate attempts to shew the progress of man^ 
kind in the construction of their dwellings. 

The CENTER compartment, by the rock open- 
ins: into a cave, in front, sufisrests the idea of those 
times when the situation of the first settlers was 
such as to force them into dwellings of this nature. 
Shelter they might afford, but not convenience ; also ' 
being fixed to a place, they were not calculated for 
men of roving dispositions; who mofc probably, 
would construct huts, resembling those seen further 
off. The flatter kind of hut, might serve in dry 

countries j 



5'5 [lect. II. 

countries; but in countries exposed to rain, the 
taller and conical form would be most useful, lliis 
continues to be tile form of the buildings (the 
churches) in Abyssinia to this da}-3 because of its 
utility in throwing off the very great rains. 

The other design shews a frame work, con- 
structed pretty nmch on the principles uf the Doric 
order. This attempts to account for the Tnj^Uphs 
by the effect of the princi]-)al rafters seen in front, 
as in the frieze (the architrave being one plain 
timber) while the mutules appear lo originate from 
cross rafters fornfmg the cornice. It is likely these 
two ideas should be kept separate ; as no building 
requiring so heavy a roof, as this cjuantity of rafter- 
ing implies, should be supposed as yet erected. 

The LOWER design shew s the manner in which the 
Hottentots construct their huts; viz. by a frame- 
Vv'ork, rising into a top, which they cover with skins, 
the fire-place being in the middle. The incon- 
veniencics attending this kind of architecture need 
not be enlarged on, as certainly, it shall not be 
recommended. 

'The UPPER division represents a Hottentot town ; 
and is a proof diat tliose people are not destitute of 
ingenuity; as they drive their flocks, &:c. into the 
center, and by blocking up the entrance, render 
access to them very difficult. 

llicse constructions seem to indicate the earliest 
stares of art: and somediing like thes^ was pro- 
bablv the inventions of most wanderins: fettlers. 



PLATE 



LECT. II.] 57 

PLATE XII. 

PROGRESS OF THE DORIC ORDER. 

IN No. 1 . we observe, the uprights are merely 
trees, placed as supports to the impending tim- 
bers; the insterstices between them being filled up 
with mud (or clay) walls. The Architrave is a 
solid beam, laid on the walls, from end to end: and 
the Trygliphs are in this instance accounted for, by 
supposing them the ends of the cross-beams which 
.support the roof The Cornice is merely thick 
boards projecting to cover the whole. 

In fact, this is little more than the center figure 
of the former plate filled up, v^ith mud walls. 

No. 2. In this example this composition begins 
to assume an air of regularity; the trees are not 
only stripped of their bark, but smoothened and 
rounded ; they have also a base, (perhaps somewhat 
too early) and a kind of trencher Capital. The 
Trygliphs here seem to originate from the insertions 
ot the cross timbers to the frieze-beam on this side; 
and the mutules Immediately over them, from the 
ascending beams which support the roof The 
Cornice is formed by the projection of the cover- 
ing of the roof; which is composed of thick boards, 
and plastered over with clay. 

Tlie transition from these rude essays to more 
regulated proportions, may be easily imagined, or 
gathered fi-om what has been already delivered. 

Vol. III. Edit. 7. I PLATE 



58 



[lect. ii< 



PLATE XIII. 

EGYPTIAN TEMPLES. 

ISTq, 1.— Shews an Egyptian temple: that of the 
Hawks in the island of 'PhiLc, in the N'ilc; which 
is entirely open at the top ; and indeed, though it 
may be called enclosed at the bottom, yet as that 
enclosure reaches only part of the height^ of the 
pillars, if not too high to be overlooked, it niight 
permit spectators to view what was passing within 
the sacred precinct.— This idea is well known to . 
have been adopted in the temple at Jerusalem. 
From No RD en's Designs in Eg^fpt. 

No. 2. — Is its plan. ^ 

No. 3.— Is a temple directly the reverse of tne 
other; being entirely under-ground: so that what- 
ever services were performed in it, must have been 
performed altogether by torch-iight.^ Whether it 
was (as is probable) dedicated to the infernal gods, 
or whether it was principally the sepulchre of three 
great persons, to whose niemory their posterity 
maintained great attention, and to whose honor 
they might perform certain solemnities, or rather 
whether it might not unite both of these purposes, 
is wholly unknown. ' ^ 

By its plan No. 4. it appears to consist ot a 
laro-e chamber in the center, with three tombs in it, 
re<njlarly placed in recesses: the fourth recess being 
occupied by the door-way. Probably these tombs 
are placed according to the four cardinal pomts ot 
the heavens. The whole is of good workmanship ; 
and cut in the rock ; it is at Necropolis, probably, 
the City of the dead: near the old port ot Alex- 
andria in Egypt. TroniNoRDEN. pr atp 



LECT. II.] 59 

PLATE. XIV. 

PROGRESS OF EGYPTIAN TEMPLES/ 

THIS plate endeavours to illustrate the progress of 
architecture, especially in regard to the number and 
position of columns in temples. To effect this, 

No. 1. Is a real view of the cabin of an Arab 
family as constructed in Upper Egypt: from the 
rudeness and simplicity of this erection, it may 
justly pass for a close imitation of the original 
dwellings of tlie inhabitants in the earliest ages. 
We remark upon it (1) that it totally excludes 
the sun ; shade being of all things most desirable in 
this part of the' world ; (2) that it is enclosed on 
three sides ; (4) that it is partly enclosed on each side 
of the front, leaving only the center open j (3) that 
it has a prop on each side of the door-way; also (5) 
a prop almost in the middle. Certainly when Mr. 
NoRDEN drew this cabin from nature, he was not 
aware of its relation to the temples of Egypt; yet to 
me it seems so truly primitive, that I think the ideas 
connected with it admit of little doubt. 

No. 2. — Is an elevation of the same cabin as sup- 
posed to be seen directly in front... 

No. 4. — Is an elevation of the temple of the 
Serpent Knuphis on the island of Elephantine in 
Upper Egypt, in which most of the peculiarities we 
have noticed in the cabin occur; not indeed that it 
is wholly closed up on the sides, though nearly; 
but the closure of the front on each side of the door- 
way, and the position of the pillar in the middle of 
the door-way, are strong features of similitude. 

I 2 Ko 



60 [lect. II. 

No. S. — Is the same cabin with its door-way, sup- 
posed to be so far extended as to require two props 
instead of one: these props also are not of one single 
stem, but a number of lighter materials (as canes 
or reeds) united for strength, and bound round by 
cords, or other materials. 

No. 5.— Is a view of the temple at Taeffa in 
Upper Egypt : wherein we see the adoption of the 
mode of placing two columns in the door-way; we 
see also that this temple being entirely covered, not 
only receives light from the door- way (which is 
usual) but also on the sides, from the vacancies (re- 
sembling windows) left in the upper part of the 
wall. The position of these vacancies is such as 
might admit light but not heat. 

No. 6. — Is the temple at Komombu in Upper 
'£g)'pt: this offers a frontispiece of three pillars in 
the door-way; these pillars also nearly resemble a 
number of canes, or reeds, tied together for strength ; 
notwithstanding they have handsome capitals, &c. 

No. 7.— A view of the temple at Deboude in 
Upper Egypt; having four pillars in front; and being 
pretty much closed up, yet preserving a door-vv^ay, 
with windows on its sides. 

Thus we have selected authentic instances of 
temples, having one, two, three, and four pillars 
in front: the addition of more may easily be 
imagined after these specimens. 



PLATE 



LECT. II.] 61 

PLATE XV. 

EGYPTIAN TEMPLES* 

No. 1. — Is a view of two chapels, cut in the rock, 
at Tshibcl Esselsele in Upper Egypt : they shew the 
prodigious labour taken by the patient inhabitants; 
their workmanship is excellent ; they are internally 
covered with hieroglyphics; there is a separation for 
the holy, and the most holy place; the latter being 
molt ornamented. Tlie pillars on the sides of the 
entrance, deserve notice, as well for their symmetr}-, 
and handsome arrangement, as for the peculiarity 
of their bases; which, though whimsical are orna- 
mental. As these are undoubtedly more ancient 
than any instance of Doric pillars, yet have bases, 
they prove that ignorance was not the cause of the 
omission of the base in the Doric order: whose pro- 
portions these pillars somewhat resemble. Their 
capitals were in part imitated in Greece. 

No, 2. — Is the temple of the serpent Knuphis, 
The front entrance to it has the great inconvcniency 
of only a single pillar, and that standing in the middle 
of the door-way: but this temple differs from others, 
in having a kind of cloistered space around it; 
wherein perhaps the priests walked, and conversed. 
It is probable this cloister might answer to the holy 
place, and the enclosed edifice to the most holy. 
The most holy place seems to have had no light but 
from the door-way; and that by reason of various 
obstructions could be so little, as barely to afford 
liberty of worship in it. Shall we suggest that the 
junior priests were admitted into tlie cloister only, 
and the elder alone into the central inclosure? * 
No. 3. — Is its plan. 

PLATE 



62 



[lect. II. 



PLATE XVI. 

EGYF-TIAN TEMPLES, 

No. 1.— Is the temple in the middle of the city 
of Essenmj in Egypt. This has six pillars in front; 
of that kind united and bound together: they have 
handsome capitals; and each capital supports a 
block, forming a kind of architrave, which runs the 
whole depth of the temple. The front is partly 
enclosed on the sides, notwithstandmg the number 
of pillars, and the great space they occupy ; the 
center seems to have had a handsome entrance 
between the two central pillars; whence, it is 
probable, the other pillars were united by a low 
wall : the present wall seen between them is merely 
an erection of the Arabs, for the purpose ot con- 
fining their cattle; but it may indicate where the 
former wall stood: and perhaps the low wall yet 
exists, as this building is evidently greatly buned in 
the sand of the country. This must have been a 
capital building in its primitive state: the number 
of pillars, their beauty, their being bestowed on 
the interw^r of the. temple, as well as on the front, 
the extent of the roof, the hieroglyphics, the hand- 
some ornament running round the cornice, and the 
capital winged globe over the entrance, justity this 

idea. 

No. II. Is its plan. 



PLATE 



LECT. II.] 63 

PLATE XVIT. 

SUGGESTED PARTS OF COLUMNS. 

BECAUSE of the curiosity of the subject, in 
connexion with its relation to architecture, as being 
a constant ornament on the temples of E^ypt, wc 
have introduced a distinct representation of what is 
usually termed the winged globe. 

It consists of three parts ; a globe in the center, 
a kind of dragon (but altogether an ideal kind, as 
I believe) and a prodigious pair of wings : the 
wings, I conceive, to be the symbol of protection, 
defence, and swiftness ; the dragons of perpetuity 
and watchfulness (from the circumstances of the 
serpent tribe seeming to be renewed by changing 
their skins, and their sleeping with their eyes open.) 
7'hc globe, either of the land, (principally) of 
Egypt, or of the earth at large, q. d. " To the 
deity who perpetually protects the land — of Egypt." 
Some persons think the idea is relative to the course 
of the earth, as a planet, round the sun. The 
handsome effect of this ornament has been already 
seen. 

No. II.— The capital of a column of the gallery of 
the principal court of the temple of Is is on the isle 
of Phila in Upper Egypt. The ornaments of it are 
evidently borrowed from nature ; being the leaves 
of an Egyptian water-plant common on the Nile- 
No. III. — A capital from a fragment of a column 
found on the isle of Pliihc : which appears to me, 
-to be a hint borro'ved from the palm ; and capable 
of very great elegance. The upper row of leaves, 
resemble frill grown leaves ; under them is a row^ of 
young shoots ; the lower are a kind of squamofe 
projcdions, which are changed at the bottom. I 
think a judicious application of a hint from this 
capital, would make a noble gallery of columns. 

PLATE 



64 lECT. II.} 

PLATE XVIIL 

SUGGESTED PARTS OF COLUMNS. 

No. I.— The story of the Acanthus basket : which 
has been already given : shewing how the elegant 
capital of the Corinthian order might originate. 

No. II.— An enlarged view of that kind of united 
(or reeded) column which we have already seen : 
it is surmounted by two rows of water-lily flowers, 
whose simple and elegant cups greatly enrich it, 
without the appearance of much labor : the head 
of Isis above it, is singularly introduced ; but per- 
haps not more so, than the author of this would have 
thought of some of the cherubim heads which 
adorn our churches, &;c. It is the capital of the 
columns of the interior court of the temple of Is is 
on the isle of PhiLc. 

This No. also shews the nature, and effect, of an 
Egyptian entablature : its differences from the more 
refined productions of Greece are easily remarkable. 

No. III. — Is another design considerably like the 
former; but differing, in the shaft of the column 
being smooth, and the divisions (or reedings) re- 
stricted to ornament the top of the column : where- 
by they become part of the capital. The leaves of 
this capital seem to be fluted ; and are by no means 
so simple as the former. It is a capital of a column 
of the temple of Is is in tlie isle of Phihe. 

The plans of the columns shew by their lines the 
projections of the leaves of the capitals : the sha- 
dowed part being the shaft, 

PLAIT 



'4' 



lECT. II.] ^^ 

PLATE XIX. 

EGYPTIAN PILLARS/ 

FROXl noticing parts of columns, we proceed 
now to notice the column at length ; and there^ 
fore have selected two instances, both of which 
shew that the design of the bases we noticed in 
Plate XV. miij^t not be considered as general in 
Egypt i but^ that however they might be adopted 
when tp ornament a rock, yet when support was 
requisite, a firmer base was employed : In fact, the 
simplicity of these bases seems to date ztt a very 
early period, and before that part of the column 
wa^ much considered in respect of ornament. As 
to the shaft of the column; in one it is quite plain; 
the other recalls the idea of those we have already 
seen, composed of several small pillars united into 
one ; whereby the general resemblance of this pil- 
lar is not very distant from some in later ages, de- 
nominated Gothic: for if each of these smaller 
pillars had a capital, the composition would be 
almost exactly like some in our ancient churches. 

As to the capitals of these pillars, they are greatly 
alike; the first, is indeed very plain; the second is 
more ornamented, but by no means equal to some 
we have seen. The idea of the numerous fillets in 
the neck of the pillar, seems closely allied to that 
of a number of cords whose office it is to bind the 
composition together ; at least, to secure the steadi- 
ness of the shaft. The first is oue of the columns 
of the portico of the great temple, the other is 
one of the columns of the vestibule of the great 
temple, at Luxor, the ancient Thebes, in Egypt. 
Vol. III. Edit.l. K PLATE 



6€ [lECT. II. 

PLATE XX. 

EGYPTIAN OBELISKS. 

IT Is fortunate for tlic reputation of Egyptian 
Art, that although most of its surprising produc- 
tions live only in the reports of those foreigners 
who were adiuitted to see them, when standing in 
their places, as designed by their authors, yet 
enough remains of some of its works to justify 
those accounts which describe others as yet superior. 

When we can trace a building a mile in extent, 
and this has been mentioned as not the largest, wc 
are induced to receive, as true, the accounts of the 
largest, although that may have perished in the re- 
volutions of ages. On this principle, when we 
view, with surprize, the great obelisks at Rome, 
which we know to be Egyptian; we can credit 
relations which represent others as of yet larger di- 
mensions. Especially, as we know that the highest 
we have, has been originally higher. Be that as it 
may, as the obelisks are among the greatest of the 
Egyptian works come down to us ; we have 
selected three for the inspection of our readers. 

The obelisk in the middle of the plate, is that in 
the Piazza del Popolo at Rome. Pliny reports, 
that it was procured from the quarry by SenncJ'crtus 
king of Egypt, about the time Pythagoras travelled 
in that country, 522 years before A. D. It was 
brought to Rome^ as appears by an inscription on 
the base, by Aiigu.<!lus\, and from thence was called 
• the obelisk of Augustus ;' that prince placed it as 
a princij)al ornament in the great Circus, where no 
doubt it was very conspicuous, being one hundred 
and twenty-five feet high in a single stone, without 
the base. In the time of the emperor Constance it 
was only eighty-eight feet long, lying then thrown 
clown in the great Circus; from whence Sixtus V. 
retrieved it, under the management of Cavalier 
Fontana. At present it is about 79 feet high, it is 
of a single stone, of beautiful granite, ornamented on 
ail sides with hieroglyphics. What these hierogly- 

pliics 



• LECT. II.] CT 

pliics really mean is not known : "We are told that 
in the time of Julian the ApoJluti,\ Hermapion (an 
Egvptian probably) endeavoured to explain those on 
this monument, which he read thus, *' The sun, the 
God, the Lord of heaven, has given to Ram esses 
the empire of the earth! Ramesses son of the 
God, foimdator of the universe, whose strength and 
valor has subjected the whole earth to his sovereign 
sway, immortal son of the sun, the embellisher of 
the city of the sun." Kirkcr the Jesuit rejected 
this explication, but did not give a better. 

As 1 conceive that it is likely this may be one of" 
Sesostris's famous works, consequently, older 
than Flinys date, I think it just worth while to 
suggest that I would read the inscription thus : 

" To the tun, God: 

To the Lord of the Hea'ven ; 

Who gave to Ramesses the empire of the eartf>: 

Ramesses 

Son of the God — foundator of the uvi'verse, 

After having by strength and valor subjected the luhole earth to hit 

dominion 
(Immortal offspring of the sun ! ) 
Erected this 
To ornament the city of the sun" 

i. e. Heliopolis, the ancient On. This seems to 
be probable J and in the instance of Sesostris we 
know to be pretty nearly fact. 

The obelisk to the right is now^ erected in the 
Piazza Navona at Rome. It was found broken in 
many pieces, lying in the circus of CuTacalla, 
about tw^o miles from Rome. This obelisk is small ; 
is covered with hieroglyphics ; and was erected by 
Iniiocent XII. to ornament the superb fountain of 
the Piazza de Navona, which Hows around it. 

The obelisk to the left, is that in the Piazza delta 
Botonda, at Rome ; though small, yet it is orna- 
mental. Being desirous to shew the use of these 
immense masses as ornaments, we have introduced 
it, with the fountain, &c. which it embellishes. 

N, B. The steps are an addition. 

K 2 PLATE 



68 [ljE;CT. w, . 



PLATE XXr. 

EASES. 

THESE Designs exhibit tl)^ I3ases of- tl>e various 
orders together; whereby th^ir differences and di- 
stinctions are rendered more striking : ^nd tlie pro- 
gress of their enrichment bt'additiona'i- members 
may be clearly seen, from ,tbe . simpk Juscap, to. 
the replete Composite, • • ,. .; ^ ( i -^rTo*-*") • ' 

PLATE; XXil. 

MOUE DITTOS. 

THIS plate is given in order to she\v^'at large the 
true forms of these parts, and the - ccjntcrs from 
which they are struck by the compasses. It is of 
importance to commit their names accurately to me- 
mory : as one, or other, occurs in every piece of Ar- 
chitecture, that can be inspected, or described. 

PLATES XXin. XXIV, 

PARTS OF AN ORDER. 

"THESE plates are explained by the writing upon 
them: they shew the members of the Doric and 
Composite Orders, whose names and situations 
being similar in the other orders, render further il- 
Justration unnecessary. 

PLATE 



LECT. II.] ^ 



PLATE XXV. 

PROPORTIONS OF THE ORDERS ON THE SAME HEIGHT.- 

AS Plate XXVI. represents the Ordets oti' the 
same module, sh^wins: their increase m heisrlrf, ' this 
PIflte shews their increase 'in slehderncss ; aild is 
de'sigried to fix the general appearance of each Order 
more firmly in the reader's memory : and especially; 
the appearance and proportions of tlie column, 
when separate fi-om its base and pedestal. • 



PLATE XXVL 

PROPORTIONS OF THE ORDERS ON THE SAME IWODULE. 

THIS plate shews the proportions of the orders 
to each other 'on the same 'module ; the progressive 
elevation and tapering of the shaft, and the ad- 
vances of richness and ornament, is apparent. 

The difference of the Orders may be gathered 
by the eye irom these subjects -, as they are placed 
together for- the sake of comparison: but their 
peculiarities will appear more distinctly in tlie larger 
examples. 



PLATE 



TO [lect II. 

PLATE XXVII. 

PRINCIPLES OF DRAWING THE ORDERS. 

THE Orders are generally measured by tlie 
diameter of their column at the bottom of its shaft, 
or by the semi-diameter: this diameter, or semi- 
diameter, is usually divided into sixty minutes; and 
by these measures the whole proportions of the, 
columns are adjusted. 

Tlie Tuscan column is in height 7 diameters 

The Doric 8 

The Ionic --__ 9 

The Corinthian - - - 10 
The Composite - - - 10 
The perpendicular proportions of the columns 
being fixed, the other parts of the orders are ad- 
justed to them. 

The ENTABLATURES of the Tuscan, and Doric, 
are in height one-fourth of the column : of the 
Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite orders, one-fifth., 
Which by the diameter. of ^ their columns is in this 
proportion. .:..': 

ThcTusc AN entablature is in height 1-| diameters. 
Tlic Doric - - - - 2 
The loNic - - - • \\ 
The Corinthian - - 2 

The Composite - - - 2 
The PEDESTAL is comparatively a modern ad- 
dition to the Orders, and is that on which the base 
of the column rests: its general height is one-fourth 

the 



LEcr n.] 71 

the height of the column and entablature taken to- 
gether. It is sometimes made lower, but never 
higher. 

The PEDESTAL is divided into — the base (at 
bottom); the die, or square part (in the middle); 
and the surbase, or cap, (at the higher part). 

The COLUMN is divided into — the base, the 
shaft, the capitah 

The EKTABLATURE is dividcd Into — the archi- 
trave, the frieze, and the cornice. 

IN drawing the Dor ic order, erect a line of the 
just height required ; one-fifth (as A B,) is the height 
of the pedestal. Divide the remainder into five 
parts; four to the column (as 1, 2, 3, 4, or B C) 
one to the entablature (as 4, 5, or C D). Tlie 
.column divided into eight parts (as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
6, 7, 8) one-eighth is the diameter. The base is 
half a diameter (as from B, j) ; and the capital half 
a diameter (as from rr,C). The base of the col am n 
projects on each side one-third of a semi-diameter 
(as 1, 2, 3, 4): Exactly of equal projection to the 
base (constantly) is the die of the pedestal. The 
column diminishes at the top one-sixth of its 
diameter ; beginning at one-third of its height, (as 
at a, b,) which ought to be divided into six parts; 
of which one is gradually diminishing as it ascends. 
The capital projects one-fourth of the smaller 
diameter (?*, c. at top) ot the column. The enta- 
blature is divided into eight parts (^as between C 
and D) ; two to the architrave ; three to the frieze, 
and three to the cornice. The architrave projects 
onc-sLxth of its height; tlie cornice projects one 

half 



■t*2 [lect. n. 

l^hff of the height of the whole entablature j as 
shewn by the chxular dotted sweep. 

N. B. The projection of the members of the Ordjers 
are reckoned from a line sup^med to be erected 
in the centre of the colurhlt, (unless notice be given 
to the contrwryl lohen modules and their parts are 
u^ed:"^'^^ ■'»-'•■ 

In drawing the Ionic order, divide the original 
perpendicular line into five parts, (as a, b, c, d, e) ; 
one-fiith is the pedestal, as a; the remainder di- 
vided into six parts, (1, 2, 3, 4j 5, 6) ; one-sixth 
is the height of the entablature, (as 5^ 6). The 
column bieing divided into nine parts, (l, 2, 3, -4, 
5, 6, 7, 8, 9) one-ninth is the diameter; the base 
and capital are each one-ha'lf diameter in height, 
(as 2i~). The column diminishes one-sixth of its 
iipper diameter; the capital projects one-half of 
the semi-diameter of the column ; the projection of 
the base is 'one-third of the semi-diameter. Tlie 
entablature is divided into five parts; one part and 
half to the architrave, the same to the frieze, and 
twb parts to the cornice. The architrave projects 
one-fourth of its height ; the cornice projects equal 
to its hei<:^ht. 

In drawing the Corinthian order, divide the 
original height ijito five parts (as a, b, c, d, e) ; one 
of \^ hich is the height of the pedestal. Divide the 
remainder into six parts, (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6); five to 
the column, one to the entablature. The column 
divided info ten parts, (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, (5, 7, 8, 9, 
10), one is the diameter; the height of the capital 
is one diameter and a quarter. The other di- 
HieHsions agree with the Ionic order. 

For 



LECT. II.] ^3 

For the pedestal, divide it into four parts, 
(1, 2, 3, 4); the first is the height of the plinth: 
one-third of a part is the heiglit of the lower base 3 
one-half of a part is the height of the upper base. 

N. B. The Composite is similar to the Co- 
rinthian In its proportions. 

In drawing the Tctscan order, divide the 
original height into five parts; one is the pedestal: 
divide the remainder into five parts; four to the 
column, one to- the entablature: the base and 
capital arc each one semi-diameter. The entabla- 
ture divides into seven parts; two to the architrave, 
two to the frieze, three to the cornice. The co- 
lumn diminishes one-fifth of its diameter; the capital 
projects one-fourth of the smallest semi-diameter; 
the architrave projects one-sixth of its height; the 
height and projection of the cornice are equal. 

Pedestals in general follow the proportion of their 
order; but this part is varied according to circum- 
stances. Hie pedestal of the Tuscan order is di- 
vided into four parts; one is the height of the 
plinth j one -half is the height of the sur-base; one- 
third is the height of the lower-base. The pro- 
jection of the base is equal to its height; and the 
projection of the upper base, or cap, is equal to 
that of the lower base. 

These rules are very general, and are the nearest 
approach to regularity; but as the members of the 
different orders are not precisely alike in ever}' com- 
position, but vary according to the effect required, 
the proportions of the smaller members change of 
course. And, indeed, there are great variations 
in the general proportions of the orders among those 
' Voju. III. Edit, 7. L remains 



7* [lect. If. 

remains of ancient ail which are regarded as models 
of this study: thus, we have instances of the 
Cornice being in heiglit half the entablature ; of 
many members of the entablature being suppressed, 
and even of an omission of the whole architrave 
and frieze; the columns supporting only the cor- 
nice. These instances, however, must be con- 
sidered as licentious, unless we knew the motives 
which actuated the architect in his departure from 
general and established principles. 

The proportions of columns, also, are not always 
the same; but even in many justly admired build- 
ings they are not so tall as the moderns make them. 

Fluting of columns is supposed to render 
their superficies more sensible, and, in consequence, 
to increase the apparent diameter of the column;. 
so that a plain shaft seems thinner than one fluted. 

Flutings should never exceed twenty-four in 
number, to the lighter orders; but twenty is 
:,ufficient for the Doric: In some instances the an- 
cients made only sixteen. 

Tlie flutings of the Ionic, &:c. are separated from, 
each other by a fillet ot about one-third of the flute 
in width; but Dqric flutings terminate sharp in 
the superficies of the pillar, without any fillet be- 
tween them. 

Sometimes tlie flutings arc filled up one-third o( 
their height with ornament; which, when well 
cut, has a rich efltct: Sometimes they reach only 
one-third of the height of the shaft, the upper part 
being plain ; and sometimes they commence at one- 
third of the height, and proceed to the top of the 
shdt, the under part being plain. 

PJUYTE 



LECT. II.] *75" 

PLATE XXVIir. 

INTERCOLUMNIATIONS. 

SHEWS the various distances of the intcrcolumni- 
ations, and their names, as given by the ancients: 
These examples shew^ at the same time the manner 
of representing plans of columns, with their bases 
and pedestals. The general effects of these various 
distances may easily be imagined. 

The Pycnostyle intercolumniations are di- 
stant from column to column, one diameter and a 
half of the column, measured at bottom. This is 
the nearest approach of colunms to each other, 
except when they arc coupled; in which case, the 
bases of the two columns may almost touch each 
other. 

In the Sv STYLE intcrcolumniation the space be- 
tween the columns is two diameters. 

In the Di A STYLE three diameters. 

In the Areostyle four diameters. 

The Eustyle is two diameters and a quarter, 
and was by the ancients reckoned the most perfect j 
as being a happy medium between the thronged 
Pycnostyle and the scattered Areostyle ; and as per- 
mitting also sufficient fpace for perfons who had oc- 
casion to pafs between the pillars. 

When columns are coupled, as the increase of 
Strength is proportionally augmented, the couples 
may be separated by a wider interval than single 
columns, without injuring the general effect. But 
«four diameters is usually thought quite sufficient. 

1. 2 PLATE 



TO [Leic.t. II. 



PLATE. XXIX. 

TUSCAN ORDER, 

THE noblest instance we haVe of this order is 
Trajan's Pillar; but that is not a perfect specimen: 
neither, in fact, is any perfect specimen known, 
as a regular order, {notwithstanding some frag- 
ments united by Piranesi in his temple of Cord). 
This plate we have taken from Palladioj who 
assures us he had seen it among the ancient build- 
ings extant in his time, though now destroyed. 



PLATE XXX. 

DORIC ORDER. 

THIS Plate exhibits an example of the Doric 
order, taken from the Theatre of Marcellus, 
at Rome : which is usually regarded as the 
most correct specimen of this order. It is, 
however, contrary to the precepts of Vitruvius, 
(who says, the dentils, as ornaments, are peculiar 
to the Ionic order) the cornice of this composi- 
tion being decorated with dentils. The drops also 
beneath the corona, instead of being horizontal, 
are somewhat inclined. 



PLATE 



LECT. II. 1 77 



PLATE XXXI. 

DORIC ORDER. 

AS this order has great merit, and beauty, and is 
much encQuraged in present architecture, especLilly 
in lesser erections, where the strictness of its 
rules produces less confinement than in extensive 
buildings, we have added two plates of it, after 
Greek specimens, both being taken from ancient 
structures remaining at Athens. The first is very 
simple, the architrave being a single uniform mem- 
ber i the frieze having a decoration of olive crowns 
placed at regular distances: but the symmetry of 
the whole is very neat and pleasing ; as also the 
projection of its members and their distinctness. 

PLATE XXXn. 

THE SECOND specimen is from the famous 
temple of Minerva at Athens : the pillar is fluted ; 
the architrave plain; but the frieze is decorated 
with tryglyphs, and the metopes are filled with 
figures. It is evident that this part of the order has 
been the favourite of the architect, who probably 
was the sculptor also (Phidias) and who depended 
much on the effect of the excellent decorations 
which he proposed to insert. The whole of this 
fabric has a stately and venerable appearance, and 
an imposing air of grandeur. 

PLATE 



78 [lect. ir. 

PLATE XXXIII. 

IONIC ORDER^ 

THIS plate, and the following, offer specimens 
of the Ionic order, taken from such Greek examples 
as are now remaining. This of- Plate XXXIII. 
has been thouglit to be the first building erected of 
the order (the temple at Teas) ; it must be admitted 
to be a very handsome composition throughout. 



PLATE XXXIV. 

THIS SECOND instance is from the temple of 
Ei^ectheus at Athens ; the enrichments of this 
specimen distinguish it ; those of the upper torus, 
and of the capital, especially; and peculiarly the 
conformation of the volute, whose spiral differs 
from all others known. It must be admitted that 
the architrave and frieze are exct^ssivelv lar^e, and 
thereby the cornice is deprived of its due propor- 
tion, and reduced to a mere covering of the lower 
parts: which need not be adhered to in any imita- 
tions of tliis order. 

N. B. The effect of this order may be seen by 
the pillars, ' &;c. of the inner door of the chapel in 
Greenwich hospital : where they were adopted by 
Mr. StuarTj wlio studied them at Athens, 

PLATE 



LECT. ll.j 19 



PLATE XXXV. 

THIS Ionic example is taken from the Temple 
of For TUNA Virilis, at Rome : which is usually 
supposed to be the most elegant instance of 
this order. 



PLATE XXXVL 

THE IONIC VOLUTE. 

AS this is the member which distinguishes the 
L:>nic order at first sight, we wish to impress it on 
the memory of our readers :- and the formation of it 
being a curious piece of geometry, we have given 
its principles, in the eye of the Volute at large, A. 
To obtain this, first strike the surrounding circle : 
within this, form a square (points upright) and pro- 
long lines through these points to the extent re- 
quired : the sweep from line to line wi]l then in- 
clude one quarter of a circle. Each side of the 
square bisected, gives the points for an inner square, 
and the place of one foot of the compasses to 
strike the first spiral, for the first quarter of a 
circle; beginning at 1, and sweeping the outermost 
quarter of a circle j then moving the compasses to 
2, for a second quarter, and so on to S, and to 4. 
The diagonal lines of the inner square divided into 
third parts, give the points for striking the other 
spirals; always going in a circular order, as 5, 6 
7,8, for the first, or outer, divisions of thirds; and 

9, 10, 



fid LECT. II.] 

9, 10, 11, 12, for the inner division of thirds, 
which completes the figure. 

The capital of this order bemg very peculiar 
in its construction, has given rise to more than 
one manner of composing it. The ancients usually 
adopted that which appears in Fig. C. which, 
on one front had an ornament originating near the 
top of the capital, and continued fpirally to i 
center. On the other front (or more properly the 
side-front) this ornament was omitted, and the cor- 
respondent parts were embellished with leaves, 
fillets, &c. as in our figure. 

B. Represents a more modern capital, .whose 
volute is the same on both its sides; .and w|i,ich 
being set angle-wise, has the same effect all round 
the capital. This volute originates . from an orna- 
ment composed of eggs and darfs, ca%(d the 
Echinus:. between the ori2rination& of; the volute in 
a gowet 



PLATie 



LECT. II.] Si 

PLATE XXXVir. 

CORINTHIAN ORDER. 

AN example of the Corinthian order, from 
the Pantheon at Rome: the richness of this 
capital deserves notice. The ornament marked 
with a star, is a side view ot the Modilion : of 
which those on the same line with it are front 
views. The base of this order has a greater num- 
ber of mouldings than the Ionic, to increase its 
richness. 

PLATE XXXVUI. 

COMPOSITE ORDER. 

THIS example of the Composite or Roman 
order, is from the Arch of Titus at Rome. The 
Base nearly resembles the foregoing Corinthian: the 
Capital is composed of the Corinthian acanthus, 
&c. but instead of the caulicoli, has superadded the 
echinus and volutes of the Ionic order. The 
cornice alfo (which in this instance is of great 
height) has the Ionic dentils, as well as the Co- 
rinthian modilions. There is always danger, lest 
these ornaments should too nearly refemble each 
otherj the dentils, therefore, should be smaller in , 
proportion than in their proper order, and the 
modilions larger. The ornamental frieze of this 
example shews of what decoration that part is 
capable. The whole of this order is richly or- 
namented. 
Vol. III. Edit.l, M PLATE 



83^ [lect. II. 

PLATE XXXIX. 

FRONT ELEVATION OF THE 

TEMPLE OF FORTUNA VIRILIS, 

AT ROME: 

ALSO, 
SIDE ELEVATION OF THE SAME TEMPLE. 

PLATE XL. 

PLAN OF THE SAME TEMPLE. 

THIS is given as an instance, not only of the 
o-eneral and customary construction, and distri- 
bution, of Heathen temples, but also, of a square 
temple, exhibited on a larger scale than any yet 
introduced. 

We are to conceive of temples in ancient times 
as standing in a considerable area, wherein was 
the altar: there was also, usually, an ascent to 
the edifice by a flight of steps, (A) which 
led to the portico (B) ; after which was the en- 
trance, and the first apartment of the temple, 
properly speaking, (C) ; beyond which was the 
second apartment (D) : wherein was the statue, or 
symbol of 'the divinity. This apartment was ac- 
cessible only to the priests, it being considered as 
the most sacred adytum — chamber, of the whole 
strvtctiire. 

PLATE 



LECT. II.] -SPi 

PLATE XLI. 

FRONT ELEVATION OF THE 

PANTHEON, 

AT ROME. 

PLATE XLIL 

SIDE ELEVATION OF THE SAME PANTHEON. 

THESE plates exhibit a circular temple, on a 
larger scale than any already given. 

This temple vvasTiot dedicated to one deity only, 
but, as its name imports, several divinities had 
their altars in it, at the same time : these altars were 
placed within it, in convenient niches around the 
wall; they were dedicated to the principal deities 
of the Romans. The large niche opposite the 
door contained a colossal statue of Jupiter: Colos- 
sal statues of Agrippa, and of Augustus, were 
also placed in the great niches in the portico. 

This temple was not only an edifice of great 
estimation among the ancients, and considered by 
them as a capital fabric, but it receives additional 
value, at present, by having escaped, in a great 
measure, the ravages of barbarians, and of time; 
so that it is supposed to be the most perfect 
Heathen temple now existing. It is not, however, 
at present, in its original splendour ; its ornaments, 
which were mostly of bronze (and some of silver), 
being taken away from the inside ; as are also its 
bronze gates, the ornaments of the portico, &;c. 
Neither is the upper part of the portico as at first 
composed, having undergone modern repairs and 
alterations. 

Tlie portico is supposed to be an addition to the 
original circular edifice ; by M a r c c s Ag r i p p a, 
whofe name it bears. 

M 2 PLATE 



81- [lect. II. 

I 

PLATE XUII. 

SECTION OF THE 

P A N T H E O N, 

A r RO ME. 

SEEN IN FRONT. 



PLATE XLIV. 

SECTION OF THE 

PANTHEON 

SEEN ON THE FLANK. 

THESE sections exhibit the internal construc- 
tion of this building: shewing the places for the 
altars, and the decoration of the tabernacles 
wherein they ftood (A, A) the effect of the sup- 
porting columns around the interior, &c. Tliey 
shew also, the opening in the center of the roof, 
by which light was admitted: as was indispensable 
in a pantheon. The same opening which admitted 
light, admitted also rain, &c. but, beside, that 
this did not spread far from the center of the pave- 
ment where it fell, the pavement was gently in- 
clined toward a drain, by which it was carried out 
of the temple. 



PLATE 



LECT II.] SI* 

PLATE XLV. 

ELEVATION OF THE FRONT OF THE 

BANQUET! ING-HOUSE, 

AT WHITEHALL. 

THIS very elegant building was erected by 
Inigo Jones, as a specimen of part of an in- 
tended royal palace : a plan, which, if it had 
been completed, would have raifed the British 
reputation in architecture above that of any other 
nation, llie Banquetting-IIouse is justly reckoned 
the most correct, as well as most elegant, structure 
we have : In this series it not only claims a place 
for its merit, but also as being an example of super- 
columniation, or order over order : the inferior 
order being Ionic, the superior Corinthian. . 

PLATE XLVL 

THE FRONT OF ST. PETER's AT ROME, 

Is given for the purpose of comparison widi the 
portico of St. Paul's at London. The observa- 
tions usually made on this front, are, that the attic 
with which it is crowned, is much too high for 
the order beneath it ; being more than one-third 
(which is the usual proportion) of the supporting 
order. Moreover, the pediment in the center is, 
for so large a front, very ill supported by four pil- 
lars, and should have had six at least : To which 
may be justly added, that the whole front being 
apparently of equal projection, the parts arc not 
distinctly marked, nor is there anv great effect 
produced by such trifling fhadows as the parts can 
cast. 

PLATE 



S6 [lect II. 

PLATE XLVIL 

ELEVATION OF THE WEST-FRONT OF 

St. PAUL'S, 

AT LONDON. 

PLATE XLVIII. 

SIDE-ELEVATION OF ST. PAUl's. 

THIS Plate, and the former, shew the compo- 
sition of this noble building, and its distribution : 
the motion of the parts (/. c. their variety and 
situation) is very happy, and the magnitude of 
the center is grand. It must be observed, that in 
so large a building the perspective adds to the 
variety of the design. 

The front is not like St. Peter's, evidently on an 
equal line, but by the recesses behind the pillars 
supporting the pediment, (which answer to what 
the Italians call a logio) it acquires a shadow and 
depth. The projections of the parts on the sides, 
are more distinct and compact than the same parts 
in St. Peter's. The situation of tlie stair-cases ad- 
joining the body of the church, is at the same 
time commodious, adds to the importance of the 
center, and breaks the otherwise too sudden lines 
of the building. 

The height of the dome is said to have ex- 
ceeded what Sir Christopher AVren could 
have wished ; but was necessary to satisfy the 
public. The decorations of the inside were never 
executed according to the proposed plan. The 
dome is double ; the inside dome being a cone' 
of brick-work, the outside supported by tim- 
bers, &c. 

PLATE 



•LECT. II.} 8T 

PLAT E XLIX. 

P L A N 

O F 

St. PAUL' s, 

AT LONDON. 



PLATE L. 
PLAN 

OF 

St. PETER'S, 

AT ROME. 

THESE Plans shew the distribution of these rival 
buildings. It must be owned the English architect 
appears to have had most difficulties to struggle 
with J being confined to narrow limits of breadth, 
in proportion to length, &;c. 

The line traced on the Plan of St. Peter*s, 
denotes the length of St. Paul's j and fhews the 
proportions of the two churches to each other!^St. 
Peter's being about 725 feet in length , St. Paul's 
being about 525 feet. 



From 



88 [lect. II. 

From this, and the preceding, series of plates, 
our readers have formed a general idea, not only of 
the progress of the science of Architecture 
(which, from an insignificant beginning, has attained 
both utility and magnificence) but alfo of its leading 
principles in thofe parts which arc ufually objects of 
design. It is not to be expected^ that every part of 
this so very extensive and multifarious science 
should even be mentioned, much less di-oussed in 
the contracted vspacc allowed to these Lectures. 
Many folio volumes have been written on the sub- 
ject, ,and every year adds to the number, as well at 
home as abroad. 

It is, perhaps, much to be wished, that repre- 
sentations of the capital productions of Archi- 
tecture were more easily to be procured: it is true, 
many may be found scattered throughout the 
volumes of authors on the subject; but a well- 
thosen collectio;i is wanting. Such a work ought 
to exhibit, not only the erections of modern times, 
but also the remains of the most important anti- 
quities, which thereby might not only become lessons 
and studies for artists, but also might contribute to a 
coraparifon between ancient and modern art. AVe 
afTume fome merit, in having attended to this 
principle: we hope, added to the utility of this 
collection, it will yield to our readers h)oth pleasure^ 
and advantage. 



OF 



tZCT. II.] ^9 

OF PRACTICAL BUILDING. 

IN Builduig three things are chiefly to be studied: 
Convenience, Firmnescs, and Pleasure. To attain 
these, we may consider this subject under (l) the 
situafioiiy and (2) the structure. 

For the SITUATION of a building, regard should 
be had to the quality, temperature, and salubrity of 
the air; the convenience of water, fuel, carriage, 
&c. and the beauty of the prospect. 

For the distribution of the parts of a building, 
the observation is, that the chief rooms, studies, 
libraries, &c. fliould lie toward the eafl : offices that 
require heat, as kitchens, distillatories, brew-houses, 
. &c. toward the south : those that require afresh cool 
air, as cellars, pantries, granaries, &:c. toward the 
north, also galleries for paintings, museums, ike. 
which require a steady light. Nevertheless, the ancient 
Greeks and Romans generally placed the front of 
their houses to the south; but the modern Italians 
vary front this rule. — Indeed, in this matter, regard 
must be had to the general properties of a country-; 
all places being obliged to provide against their re- 
spective inconvenicncies ; so that a good parlour in 
Egypt might make a good cellar in England. 

The ST R u c T u R E <?/ a building, may be considered 
as composed of, first, the principal parts ; then the 
necessaries, or ornaments. To the prmcipals belong, 
the materials, and the form. 

The MATERIALS of a building are either stone, 
marble, brick, or wood, as fir, oak, Sec 
Vol. hi. Edit. 7, N Th^ 



90 PRACTICAL BUILDING. [lECT. II. 

77?^ FORM of a bidldhig is either simple, or 
mixed. The simple forms are cither circular, or 
angular : the mixed are compounded of both. 

The circular form is commodious, of great ca- 
pacity ; strong, durable, and beautiful ; but the 
most expensive; loses much room when divided; 
and has an ill distribution of light, except from the 
center: the ancients therefore, used the circular 
form only in temples and amphitheatres, which 
needed no compartition. Oval forms have the 
ssLme inconveniencies, without the fame convenien- 
cies, being of less capacitv. 

Sir Henry Wotton ohscx\cs,i\\2X building \o\es 
neither many nor few angles : the triangle, e. gr. 
is condemned, wanting capacity and firmness ; 
also, because incapable of being gracefully resolved 
into any other regular figure in the partitions, besides 
its own. Figures of five, six, seven, or more 
angles, are fitter for fortifications, than for civil 
buildings. Rectangles are preferred, as being a 
just medium between extremes. Of these an 
oblong, provided the length does not exceed the 
breadth by above one third, is usually most esteemed. 
Mixed figures, partly circular, partly angular, 
may be judged by the rules which regulate the sim- 
ple ones ; but they offend against uniformity, though 
they adniit most variety ; and however uniformity 
and variety may feem to be contrary to each other : 
yet thev are both necessary to a happily composed 
building. 

The PARTS of a building, have been comprised 
under five heads, the foundation, the zvalls, the 
aj)er lures, \\\c distribution, and the cormw^y. 

For 



LECT. II.] PRACTICAL BUILDING. 91 

For the Foundation, Vitruviits orders the ground 
to be dug lip to examine its firmness ; and its ap- 
parent solidity not to be trusted to, unless the 
whole mould cut through be found solid. The 
depth of the digging, Palladia limits to a sixth 
part of the heiglit of the building, for structures of 
great magnitude and weight. 

This Sir //. Wotfou. calls the natural foundation ; 
whereon are to stand the walls, which he calls the 
artificial foundation : this then is to be the level ; 
its lowest ledge, or row, being of stone, close laid 
with mortar, and the broader the better; at least 
twice as broad as the wall. Some add, that the 
materials below should be laid just as they grow in 
the quarry, supi)osing them to have the greatest 
strength in their natural position. Dc Lorme en- 
forces this, by observing, that the breaking of a 
stone in this part of the fabric, though but the 
breadth of the back of a knife, will make a cleft 
of above half a foot in the superstructure. 

The great laws of walling are, that all walls 
stand perpendicular to the ground-w^ork ; the right 
angle being the cause of stability : that the massiest 
and heaviest materials be lowest, ns fitter to bear than 
to be borne : that the work diminish in thickness as 
it rises ; that certain courses of superior strength be 
occasionally inserted to sustain the fabric, if the 
under parts chance to decay : and lastly, that the 
angles be firmly bound, and united ; these being 
the nerves of the whole, and commonly fortified, 
by the Italians, at the corners, (coins, or quoins) 
even in brick bitildings, with squared stones ; which 
add both beauty and strength. 

N 2 The 



92 PRACTICAL Br^LDING. [lECT. U. 

The APERTURES, avc either doors, windows, 
ataircases, chimnies, drains, &c. with regard to the 
last. Art should imitate Nature m these ifrnoble 
conveyances, and seclude them from si^ht, with 
the utmost possible address. 

In Distribution there are two general views 
graccfulne&s and usefulness: gracefulness consists in 
a double analogy or correspondence ; first, between 
the parts and the whole ; a large fabric should have 
large partitions, efitranccs, doors, columns, and, 
in general, all the members large. The second 
analogy is between the parts themselv.es, with re- 
gard to length, breadth, and height. The ancients 
determined the length of their rooms, that were 
oblongs, by double their breadth ; their height by 
half their breadth and length, added together. 
^Yhen the room was square, they made the height 
half as. much more as the breadth; these rules the 
moderns dispense with ; sometimes squaring the 
breadth, and making the diagonal thereof the mea- 
sure of the, height ; and sometimes more: accord- 
ing to circumstances, which require adaptation and 
management. 

Usefulness, consists in having a sufiicient 
number of rooms of each kind, with proper com- 
munications, and without interference. . The chiet 
difficulty lies in the lights and stair-cases. The 
ancients were pretty easy on these heads, having 
g-eneraily two cloistered open courts, one for the 
women's side, the other for the men's: thus the 
reception of light into the body of the building was 
easy ; whicli, among us, uiust be supplied either 

by 



LECT. II.] PRACTICAL BUILDING. 9g 

by the open form of the building, or by graceful 
refuges or breaks, by sky-lights, &c. As to placing 
tlie ofllccs, they should be neither so near as to b(^ 
offensive, or intrusive on the company, nor so distant 
as that too much time should be consumed in 
passing to, or from them. 

In distribution, an Architect will have occasion 
for frequent shifts ; through which his own sagacity, 
more than any rules, must condutt him. For in- 
stance, he will be frequently put to struggle with 
scarcity of ground i sometimes to ruin the appear- 
ance of one room for the benefit of others ; in ge- 
neral, his aim should be to make those the most 
beautiful which are most in sight ; and to leave the 
rest, as it were, in shadow,. &c. 

In the covering, or roof, two extremes are to be 
avoided, the making it too heavy, or too light : the 
first will press too much on the fupports ; the latter 
tias no lefs inconvenience; for the cover is not only 
a defence, but, a band or ligature to the whole build- 
ing ; and requires a reafonable weight. Care should 
be taken, that the pressure be equal on each side > 
nor should the whole burden be laid on the outward 
walls, but the inner walls should likewife bear their 
share. The Italians are curious in the proportion of 
the slope of the roof j dividing the whole breadth 
into nine parts, whereof two serve for the height of 
the highest ridge to the lowest i but in this, regard 
must be had to the climate, lor those climates which 
fear the falling of fnow, rain, &:c. ought to have 
sharper roofs than others, that the fnow which can. 
lodge upon them, may be lefs in quantity and weight. 



^-f PRACTICAL BUILDING. [lECT. II. 

The accc/forieSy or ornaments of buildings^ are 
derived t'rom painting and Iculpture. 'Hie chief rules 
to be regarded in embellishment with pictures are, 
that no room have too much, {this does not include 
galleries, or the like :) that the best pieces be placed 
m the most advantaireous lisrhts: rooms with feveral 
windows, are enemies to pi6tures, nor can any pic- 
ture be feen in perfection, unlefs illumined like Na- 
ttire, with a single light. Also, in their disposition, 
regard must be had to what side the light comes 
from, to their height from the eye, which is the 
most natural for the fpectator; and their subjects 
must be accommodated to the intention of the room 
they are ufed in. Ornaments of sculpture, must not 
be too abundant ; especially at the approach of a 
building J or at the entrance; where Doric orna- 
ments are preferable to Corinthian ; fine sculptures, 
should always have the advantage of nearness to the 
eye, and coarser performances ot distance from it. 

To judge of a building, Sir H. Wotton lays down 
the foUov^'ing rules. — That, before giving anyjudge- 
ment, a perfon be informed of its age ; since, if ap- 
parent decays exceed the due proportion of time, it 
may be concluded, that the situation, the materials, 
or the workmanship, is bad. If it be found to bear 
its years well, let him advert, from the ornaments 
and things which strike the eye first, to the more 
essential members ; having determined on thefe, he 
may pronounce whether, or not, the work be com- 
modious, firm, and delightful ; the three conditions 
in a good building, first laid down and agreed on by 
all Authors. 

In 



LECT. II.] practical' BUiLDlKG;. 9(i 

In this judgement sliould be incl,uded the consi- 
deration, whtther the walls stand upright, upon a 
clean footing and foundation ; v» hether the huHdufg 
be of a beautiful stature ; whotlier tl^i principal en- 
trance and others be well placed ^ as aifo tiic win- 
dows, offices, Sec. 

Vifruvhis gives another method of judging : sum- 
ming up the whole art under these six heads: Onli- 
nation, or settling the model and scale of the work ; 
Disposition^ the just expression of the design thereof; 
Eurythmy, the harmony between the length, breadth, 
and height of the several rooms, &lc. Symmetry^ or 
tlie agreement between the })arts and the whole ; 
Decor, the due relation between the building and the 
inhabitant : and Distribution, the useful allotment of 
the several rooms for office, entertainment, or plea- 
sure. These last four are ever to be strittly attended 
to : and these are sufficient to condemn or acquit 
any buildijig whatever. 

Dr. Fuller gives us two or three good aphorisms 
in building ; as, — 1. Let not the common rooms be 
private, nor the private rooms be common. — 2. A 
house had better be too little for a day, than too big 
for a year. — 3. Country houses must be substantives, 
able to stand of themselves : not like city buildingSy 
supported and sheltered on each side by their neigh- 
bours. — 4. Let not the front look afquint on a 
stranger: but accost him right at his entrance. — 
5. Let the offices keep their due distance from the 
Mansion-house ; those are too familiar, which are of 
the same pile with it. 

The 



JK> • PRACTICAL BUILDING. [lECT. II. 

The design of an edifice is commonly laid down 
on three several draughts. 

First, a Plan, which exhibits the extent, divisions, 
arid distribution of the ground, into the various apart- 
ments, and other conveniencics. PJans are often 
made for the several stories: as their distribution 
may differ occasionally. 

A second drawing represents externally the sto- 
ries, their heights, and the general appearance of the 
whole building : this is termed an iLlevalion. 

The third drawing is the Section, and shews the 
internal parts of the fabric; the front wall being 
supposed absent. 

By means of the Plan, the Elevation and the Sec- 
tion, an estimate may be made of the expence, time, 
&c. a building may require, according to its mea- 
surement. And the most accurate estimates are 
necessary in this art, because some things always 
occur that could not be foreseen; but for which in 
good estimates allowance is regularly made. 



END OF THE LECTURES ON 

ARCHITECTURE. 



I,IST OF PLATES 



BtLOMClKC TO 



THIS VOLUME. 



PERSPECTIVE. 



Plates to Le£ture I. 

Geometrical Figures, Plates 1 
to 4. - Page .34 to 37 

Plate 5. Scale for lengthening 
and fhortening lines, &c. 38 

Plate 6. To draw a line to a 
point given, beyond the li- 
mits of the pi6ture - 39 

Plate 7, To raeafure the dif- 
tance of inacceflible places 40 

Plate 8. To enlarge or diiui- 
nifh by means of fquares 41 

Plate 9. The ftrufture of the 
eye - - - 42 

Plate 10. A cone of rays 43 

Plate \l. Perfpe^live repre- 
fentations . - 44 

Plate 1 2. The fame fubje^ con- 
tinued - - . 43 

Plate 13. Planes feen at differ- 
ent heights - - 46 

Plate 1 4. Planes feen at differ- 
ent ftations - - +7 

Plates to Lefture II. 

Plate 15, Lines in Perfpeftive, 

64 
Plate 16. Squares in Perfpec- 

tive - - 65 

Plate 17. Triangle in Perfpec- 

tive - - 66 

Plate 1 8. Pentagon in Perfpec- 

tive - - 67 

Plate 19. Circle in Perfpec- 

tive - . 68 



Plate 20. Cylinder in Perfpcc- 
tive - - Page 69 

Plate 21. Cube and pyramid 
in Perfpe(5live - - 70 

Plate 22. Cube and double 
crofs in Perfpeftive - 71 

Plate 23. Tufcan bale in Per- 
fpeflive - - 72 

Plate 24. Tufcan capital i:i 
Perfpediive - - 73 

Plate 25. Inlide of an apart- 
ment - - . 74 

Plate 26. Doors opeaing 75 

Plate 27. Inclined planes ex- 
plained - - 76 

Plate 28. Inclined planes 77 

Plate 29. Flight of ftairs 78 

Plate 30. Inclined planes on 
inclined planes - - 79 

Plate 31. Outlines of land- 
fcapes, fl)ewing the applica- 
tion of Perfpective princi- 
ples - • - SO 

Plates to Le£ture III. 

Plate 32. Seat of light 10 i 
Plate 33. Seat of light on vari- 
ous planes - - 105 
Plate 34. Seat of the fun I OS 
Plate 35. Shadows from the fun 
on inclined planes - 107 
Plate 36. Sun in the plane of 
the piflure - - ]0i 
Plate 37. Sun before and be- 
hind the piciure - 109 
Plate 



LIST OF PLATES. 



I'late 38. Sun behind the pic- 
ture - Page 1 10 

Plate 39. Sun before the pic- 
ture - - III 

Plate 40. Shadow on a cylin- 
der - - 112 

Plate 4 J . Shadows of a globe 1 13 

Plate 42. Shadows on' a' wall 
and (hed - - - 1 1 4 

Plate 43. Shadows on a houfe, 
115 

Plate 44. Rcfleflionsof objedls 
in water, &c. - 116 

Plate 43. Reflexions of houfes 
in water - - 117 



Plate 46. Refle6lIons ofvarioiu 
objeds - - Page 117 

Plates to Lecture IV. 

Plate 47. Refleaion of light, 

139 
Plate 48. Keeping. Plate I. 

140 
Plate 49. Keeping. Plate II. 

141 
Plate 50. Keeping. Plate III. 

142 
Plate 51. Keeping. Plate IV. 

143 



ARCHITECTURE. 



Plate 1 to 10. Progrefs of build- 
ing - - Page 17 to 27 
Plate 1 1 . Conftru6lion of huts, 

55 
Plate 12. Progrefs of the Do- 
ric order - - 57 
Plate 13. Egyptian temples 58 
Plate 14. Progrefs of Egyptian 
tun pies - - - 59 
Plate 15. E<>yptian temples 61 
Plate 16. Egyptian temples C2 
Plate 17. Suggefted parts of 
- ' columns - - -63 
Plate 18. Suggefied parts of 
"•i columns' - - - 64 
Plate 19. Egyptian pillars 65 
Plate 20. Egyptian obelilks 66 
Plate 21. Bafes of columns 68 
Plate 22. Mouldings - ibid. 
Plates 23. 24. Parts of an or- 
der - - - ibid. 
Plate 25 . Proportions of the or- 
ders on the fame height 69 
Plate 26. Proportions of the or- 
ders on tlie fame module ib. 
Plate 27. Principles of draw- 
ing the orders - - 70 
Plate 2S. lntercolumniations75 
Plate 29. Tufran order 76 
Plate 30, Doric order ibid. 



Plate 31. Doric order 77 

Plate 32. Doric, from temple 
of Minerva - - ibid. 
Plate 33. Ionic order - 75 
Plate 34. Ditto - - ibid, 
Plate 35. Ditto, Fortuna Viri- 
lis - - - 79 

Plate 36. Ionic volute ibid. 
Plate 37. Corinthian order 81 
Plate 38. Compofite order ib» 
Plate 39. Temple of Fortuna 
Virilis - - - 82 

Plate 40. Plan of Ditto ibid, 
Plate 41. Front of the Panthe- 
on at Rome - - 83 
Plate 42. Elevation of the Pan- 
theon . - - ibid, 
Plate 43. Seflion of the Pan- 
theon in front - - 84 
Plate 44. Seaion of the Pan- 
theon in flank - - ibid. 
Plate 45. Banqueting-houfe 85 
Plate 46. Front of St. Peter's 
at Rome - - . ibid. 
Plate 47. Front of St. Paul's 36 
Plate 48. Side elevation of Si. 
Paul's - -. - ibid. 
Plate 49. Plan of St. Paul's 87 
Plate 50. Plan of St. Peter's ib. 



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FRONT of ST Peters at Rome. 



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